Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 35

A

rapidly expanding aspect of theatre practice, 3D printing offers an undisputed advantage in this digital age, when creativity can rely heavily
on technology. Readily adopted by designers, artisans, and technicians,
3D printers have become essential tools to quickly produce tangible
versions of digital designs. Yet, while people are quickly integrating
digital printing into their workplace, all of the hazards associated with
this emerging technology are not being addressed. Some immediately apparent safety
hazards are associated with this equipment, such as minor burns from a hot extruder and
melting plastic. Less obvious are the health hazards related to 3D printing.
Among a number of erroneous assumptions about
the safety of 3D printing is that any compounds given off by the melting plastic can be abated by having
a "well ventilated" room. Another is that surely manufacturers have tested the toxicity of their products. Before incorporating 3D printing in your design practice,
it's important to know the hazards and how to use the
technology safely.
POPULAR 3D PRINTING OPTIONS
The two main types of 3D printers in use today use either Fused Deposition Manufacturing or Stereolithography. Fused Deposition Manufacturing, sometimes
called Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), printers heat
plastic to a melting point and then, through the use of
computer-controlled extruder and building platform,
build up an object layer by layer. Health hazards result
from the fumes and particles emitted by the plastic filament when it is molten. These vary widely by both type
of plastic and manufacturer. The most common type
of plastic in use is Polylactic Acid (PLA), which has
a lower operating temperature and can be used without a heated build surface. Another common filament
is Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). However, a
wide range of plastics with different compositions and
properties are being used in 3D printers. And while the
various plastics have different properties, the concerns
about fumes and particle emissions are predominately
the same.
Another type of printing, Stereolithography (SLA),
uses a light sensitive liquid resin that is selectively hardened by exposure to a UV laser or projector. The light
source hardens the object layer by layer until it is complete. When the object is finished printing, the user lifts
the object out of the vat of resin. This process leaves a
coating of uncured resin that needs to be cleaned off
by the user, who potentially may be exposed to the resin. Before the object is safe to handle, it needs to be
completely dried, usually through exposure to sunlight

or another UV light source. Until fully dry, the object
continues to leach fumes from the photo-sensitive resin.
PRIMARY SAFETY RISKS
The safety risks of 3D printing are not insignificant.
As plastics are melted or burned, they release what are
called decomposition products. Monona Rossol, Industrial Hygienist and safety advocate, explains it like this
in her book The Health and Safety Guide for Film, TV,
and Theater: "The chemicals produced during heating or
burning of plastics under normal shop conditions are
very complex. Literally hundreds of chemicals are generated, some of which will be very toxic. The complex
chemical content of the emissions means no respirator
will be successful in capturing all of these chemicals.
Heat decomposition emissions should be controlled by
ventilation" (Rossol 2011, 119).
This process is no different for 3D printers. The
plastic filament is heated enough to allow it to flow,
which is enough for it to decompose. The chemicals
that are off gassed during printing are essentially what
is mentioned on the Safety Data Sheet (SDS), which
comes with your printer in the section on "Hazardous

Safety Data Sheets
Beginning in 2012, the United States adopted the new Safety Data
Sheet (SDS) format. This replaced the Material Safety Data Sheet
(MSDS). The MSDS had a variety of formats which meant that necessary information could be in different sections depending on the
manufacturer. The SDS has a standardized format, with 16 defined
sections. The deadline for full compliance was June 1, 2016. Manufacturers should be fully compliant with their SDSs. All the filament
suppliers contacted by the author do have SDSs for their plastics
and resins. It is typical to replace MSDSs with SDS as they are available. If you have materials obtained under the old MSDS, and have
not purchased new material to replace it, then keeping the old
MSDS on file may be prudent.
S u m m e r   2 0 1 7

theatre design

& technology

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - Cover1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - Cover2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 4
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 31
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 39
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 40
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 41
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 42
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 43
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 44
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 46
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 47
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 48
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 49
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 56
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 68
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - Cover3
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - Cover4
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