Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 41

raise concerns about exposure. For other resins used in
casting, local exhaust is required for the vapors and gases
emitted. So, it is reasonable to assume that users should
work with an exhaust system when handling resin and uncured prints from an SLA machine.
Manufacturers of plastic can also be vague with their
SDS sheets, because they don't know how consumers will
ultimately use the products. For example, the ARGOS
PLA Filament SDS only recommends: "Ventilation: Necessary to exclude dust, fumes and gases." In all cases, it is
imperative that the users of the plastic educate themselves
on the hazards and assume responsibility for their own
safety.
Safer Machines: In 2012, a leading manufacturer of
3D printers, StrataSys, hired an independent laboratory
to conduct air quality measurements of its various models
of FFF Printers. It is important to note that the StrataSys printers use an enclosed printing space that is heated;
thus, the operator is not exposed to all the emissions during printing. Also, these 3D printers have specifically designed a venting and filtering system that reduces airborne
chemicals outside the printer (Figure 2). The lab found
that the level of airborne particles were below the specified
PELS and TLVs with this particular unit design. While
the measurable amounts of particles are within safe limits, there is still a recognizable odor when these machines
are in use. This odor is based on a limitation in the filters
used. High-Efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are
designed to stop 99% of particles that are 0.3 μm or larger.
This can deal with dusts created from sanding, grinding or
other physical abrasion. But, for the smaller particles inside
fumes, there is no guarantee of capture.
For artists and companies that cannot afford the more
expensive machines, there are a few options, including
commercial solutions that are made for extracting fumes.
BOFA Americas Inc. is the American arm of BOFA Ltd
UK, which has been manufacturing fume extraction and
filtration solutions since 1987. For example, one of their
products involves a cabinet with an air intake that pulls
air through the cabinet into the filtering mechanism. This
creates negative pressure in the cabinet, so there is only
one direction the fumes can go (Figure 3). At Washington and Lee University, the design lab repurposed an existing exhaust system from an unused darkroom to create
a similar arrangement. The 3D printers are housed in a
purpose-built cabinet with negative pressure that vents
directly to the outside (Figure 4). It uses ductwork that
is separate from the room's HVAC. The negative pressure
in the cabinet and separate ductwork prevents the fumescontaminated air from being circulated into the room. This
was built by university facilities to the specifications of a
HVAC specialist who was familiar with fume extraction
and cost significantly less than purchasing a BOFA sys-

tem, primarily because of the existing ductwork that already fit the necessary local exhaust requirements.
When we are on the forefront of a new technology, our regulations can lag behind. 3D printing provides
a good example of why users need to put more thought
into the chemicals and toxins that are produced by new
technologies. A careful reading of the Safety Data Sheets
provided by the manufacturers of filament and resins will
provide only some of the necessary information on the
safe practice and usage of 3D printers, but as discussed,
these sheets are also impacted by delays and incomplete
information. OSHA and ACGIH can provide additional
information, but remember that when looking into safety
concerns, the only person that is looking out for the user
is you. Manufacturers are not required to disclose, and indeed they may not know, all of the hazards to which the
user may be exposed. And just because you feel fine now,
that doesn't mean that recurring exposure to fumes and
chemicals from 3D printing will not adversely impact your
health in the future. The time to act is now. Establish safety
protocols and systems to guarantee that your health and
creativity will not be affected later.
Owen Collins MFA is a professor of theatre
at Washington and Lee University, where he
has taught since 2002 and was department
head for 8 years. Collins was the artistic
director of the Ensemble Theatre Community
School, where he was also a faculty member for 12 years.
His design work has been seen at The Ailey Citigroup
Theatre, the Corcoran Gallery of Art, and Lucille Lortel
Theatre, as well as other venues in the Unites States. Reach
him by email at owenmcollins@gmail.com or on Twitter @
owenscenic.

WORKS CITED

Dennekamp, M. et al. 2001. "Ultrafine particles and nitrogen oxides generated by
gas and electric cooking." Occupational and Environmental Medicine 58.8: 511-16.
Rossol, Monona. 2011. The Health and Safety Guide for Film, TV, and Theater. 2nd
Ed. New York: Allworth Press.
Rossol, Monona. 2016. "SDS Info & Comments: Section By Section." Arts Crafts
Theater Safety Data Sheet Revised 07/02/2016.
Rossol, Monona. 2016. "Threshold Limit Values Data Sheet" Arts Crafts Theater
Safety Data Sheet Revised 07/02/2016.
United States Department of Labor. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
"Permissible Exposure Limits - Annotated Tables." Accessed 21 February 2017.
https://www.osha.gov/dsg/annotated-pels/tablez-1.html
United States Department of Labor. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
"Ventilation." OSHA Technical Manual. Section III, Chapter 3. Accessed 23 May
2017. https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_iii/otm_iii_3.html

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - Cover1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - Cover2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 4
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 9
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 14
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 24
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 26
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 28
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 30
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2017 - Public - 38
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