Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 43

T

he wing and shutter system was ubiquitous in the United States and Canada in the 19th century, and its use lasted until the early years of the 20th
century. Studies suggest that these systems fell out of use early in the history of the United States, but a survey of theatrical guides, product catalogs, and, most importantly, theatres around the country such as the Steyer Opera
House in Decorah, Iowa, and the Crump Theatre in Columbus, Indiana, contradict this conventional wisdom. These systems permitted quick scenic changes
in smaller theatres that lacked the space or capital to invest in counterweight
rigging systems. Such theatres can provide a wealth of historical information for
contemporary practitioners.
While the wing and shutter system
was well known in the United Kingdom
and on the European Continent, its use
in North America is not widely acknowledged. In his 1954 doctoral thesis The
Development of Stage Rigging in the
United States (1766-1893), John Green
wrote that the "theatres of America,
from 1766 to 1794, were dependent
upon wings and shutters, which were
supported and changed by the English
'groove' system and were manually operated upon a raked stage." The wing and
shutter system, he
wrote, was replaced
in the Unites States
by pole and chariot,
and ultimately by
"the modern iron
counterweight systems of Stage Rigging."
We are led to infer that the wing and
shutter system ceased to be used sometime shortly after 1794. Evidence, however, suggests that the wing and shutter

system dominated on many stages until
the beginning of the 20th century. While
it appears that Green was mistaken, in
fairness to him, he admits that his study
was of "more prominent" theatres in the
United States. For the more prominent
theatres, he may have been right, but
extant evidence suggests the presence
and use of wing and shutter systems in
smaller theatres around the country for
more than another century.

Simple, Affordable Solution

A wing and shutter system comprised
flats that were used at the sides of the
stage and upstage. The flats were guided
in grooves at the floor and at the top. The
grooves were parallel to the plaster line.
The side flats, called "wings," were the
side scenic pieces that masked the sides
of the stage, much as drapery legs do today. The acting area of the stage, often
24' to 30' wide, was between the inside
edges of the pairs of wings. The upstage
flats, called "shutters," were identical to
the wings in all ways except one; they

were wide enough that they could meet
at center stage to form a background.
The acting area was downstage of the
shutters.
The other popular system in use
during the period under consideration
was the chariot and pole system, which
was the mode of scene change in Europe and England from the mid-1600s
until the early 20th century. This costly
system was used in the court theatres
and opera houses. These facilities were
showplaces of power and influence, so
the significant cost of the chariots and
poles was endurable. However, in commercial and community theatres, the
investment in a chariot and pole could
not be justified, so the simpler "wing and
shutter" system was most popular.
In addition to being less expensive
in and of itself, the wing and shutter system allowed theatres without expensive
fly towers to have relatively robust scenic
designs. Many of the opera houses in the
United States were on the second and
third floors of buildings, so they could not

(Opp PAGE TOP) This page from the 1960 J.R. Clancy catalog shows that half-mortise flat sheaves required for wing and shutter systems were still being sold well into
the 20th century. Available from the USITT website at http://jrclancyarchive.usitt.org.

SPRING 2018

|

THEATRE DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY

| 43


http://jrclancyarchive.usitt.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - Cover1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - Cover2
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 4
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 15
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 39
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 40
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 41
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 42
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 43
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 44
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 45
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 46
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 47
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 48
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 49
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 50
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 51
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 56
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 60
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 61
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 62
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 63
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 64
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 65
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 66
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 67
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - 68
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - Cover3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2018 - Public - Cover4
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