IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2018 - 17

and validated to support collaboration. This requirement
From the perspective of computer science and software
imposes a grand challenge to the IEEE Systems, Man, and
engineering, all concepts and components in a complex
Cybernetics Society, and it is our responsibility to face this
world should be stored, processed, and transformed into
challenge by putting significant effort into investigating
data with appropriate structures in computers. Effective
this matter deeply and broadly.
collaboration requires sufficient data about resources, proCollaboration, or most collaborative activities, is comcesses, and decision making. Data sets need to be develplex because it is difficult to express using formal or mathoped into big data through collaboration. Consequently,
ematical expressions. It is almost impossible for us to
these matters reveal a connection between big data and
handle all of the related elements, because each, such as
collaboration research.
intelligence, emotions, or people, is complicated enough for
From a philosophical perspective, quantitative changes
a group of researchers to investigate during their whole
may lead to qualitative changes; and big data is an example
lives. Therefore, dividing and conquering is the fundamenof qualitative change caused by quantitative change. The
tal way to perform collaboration research, and we need to
immense quantity of big data changes the property of
provide a pertinent, abstract level and concentrate on
sheer raw data. Therefore, big data is data mapping of the
the aspects that can be handled by individual researchers
real-world activities, i.e., collaboration among people and
or a well-formed team. Big data brings new challenges
their environments.
and opportunities for collaboration research.
Are there any expansive data sets that represent big
Big data is defined as data sets whose size is beyond the
data? I believe that, for data sets to be considered big data,
ability of typical database software
there should be a complete set of
tools to capture, store, manage,
rules, structures, and relationships
and analyze [1], [4]. If there were no
about a particular object in a probcomputers, big data would present
lem, i.e., big data should be able to
"Data-especially big
only problems and challenges. Supcreate a class based on all the
data-are worthless for
pose that a company has tons of
information of the objects condata recorded on papers in a waretained within its data sets. If data
developing systems,
house. Do you think these data are
sets may produce the class for
supporting manvaluable? If they are stored and
objects, then they are big data.
made decision[s], or
processed by computers, it is cerLarge volumes of duplicated data
tainly possible to add tremendous
are not to be considered big data.
controlling through
value to such data. That is why
For example, data sets that contain
cybernetics, unless
Dr.  James M. Tien, professor from
all the property information about
the University of Miami, states,
a disease, say, lung cancer, can be
they are analyzed
"Data-especially big data-are
regarded as big data.
or processed to yield
worthless for developing systems,
Inductive programing [3], [5] to
critical information."
supporting man-made decision[s],
compose a class from objects has
or controlling through cybernetics,
been a long-term goal of researchers
unless they are analyzed or proin the computer programing field
cessed to yield critical information"
for at least two decades. Big data
[7]. Therefore, we emphasize that big data is a collection of
is the most promising way to make inductive programmeaningful data sets whatever their size.
ing a reality, because abstraction is a process to extract
Data collaboration means visualizing data from all relethe property information from a large volume of raw
vant different data sources and delivering them to the right
data about similar objects. Collaboration research propeople, in the right format, and in time to use them in makvides innovative methodologies, models, algorithms,
ing effective decisions [2]. In this article, data collaboraand systems to support collaboration among people,
tion is used to describe the process that transforms
system components, systems, and data sets.
scattered large data sets into meaningful data sets, i.e., big
From the requirement of inductive programing, large
data. That is, raw large data sets may not be big data.
data sets need collaboration to become big data, and colAt first glance, big data may seem very distant from collaboration among data sets is not simply putting data
laboration research. However, this idea changes signifisets together. In many cases, an enterprise has a data set
cantly after we analyze it at an abstract level, because
covering a subarea that is mainly concerned with the
these cutting-edge research fields cope with complex sysenterprise itself. To make this data set big data, this
tems. Big data deals with intricate data that cannot be proenterprise must collaborate with other companies to
cessed satisfactorily through traditional processing
combine appropriately related data sets. This combimethods. Collaboration research manages a complex world
nation is not just a simple collection of two or three
that includes physical objects, resources, people, informadata sets. It requires the careful design of collaboration
tion, intelligence, capital, emotions, and org anizations.
among data sets based on clearly specified requirements.
Ja nua r y 2 01 8

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE

17



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2018

Contents
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