IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2018 - 26

communication between the physical and virtual objects in real
time. Synchronization between
physical objects and virtual
objects creates mirrored objects
(also known as digital twins) that
exist in both worlds simultaneously. This real-time synchronization
is defined as a dual-reality (or
cross-reality) state [54]. While all
hardware objects have digital
(b)
twins, software objects do not
necessarily need twins (twinning
is primarily a mechanism to synchronize virtual and physical versions of the same component).
This allowed technicians to monitor remote equipment, changing
configurations when needed, with
(a)
(c)
the benefit of seeing the effects of
the changes in real time using the
Figure 4. An MR monitoring system. (a) A technician, (b) an immersive VR
3-D representation. Thus, when a
control center, and (c) a first-person view of the AR app.
technician is needed on site, an
AR app could show sensor data
to the worker in real time, providindoor user tracking (Figure 4). The system was designed
ing supplementary information when a specific device is
to support service operation technicians in three differunder repair.
ent scenarios:
Finally, using an adaptive fuzzy-based Kalman filter,
1) remote equipment monitoring and control, via a VR
the system allowed indoor user tracking based on informaenvironment
tion collected from the inertial measurement unit sensors
2) on-the-job monitoring, using an AR application (app)
on wearables (i.e., a mobile phone and head-mounted dis3) remote expert support, via an MR environment.
play), calculating the technician's position and rotation.
Using a T1 fuzzy logic controller, the system controlled
This information can be useful in situations where a techchanges in sensors and actuators in the physical equipment
nician needs extra support from an expert. Here, the
and represented them in the VR environment, using 3-D verexpert could log into the VR environment and immediately
sions of the equipment. This achieved bidirectional
have access to the equipment status and technician

(a)

(b)

Figure 5. An intelligent immersive assistant system [45]. (a) An engineer and (b) a first-person view of the

AR app.
26

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Janu ar y 20 18



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2018

Contents
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