IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2018 - 29

overreliance on the guidance of the visual clues, auditory
aids, and other haptic feedback so that the engineers will
be able to perform the maintenance activities without the
technology [67].
A final challenge for the effective integration of new
technologies is linked with barriers to success. These barriers fall primarily into two categories: 1) technology and
infrastructure and 2) human use and adoption [68]. The
more complex and difficult of these two is human resistance to change with adoption of new technology. Innovation cycles for new technologies have become shorter and
shorter. Implementing technology requires change, which
humans tend to resist. While the adoption of a new technology may be of considerable potential benefit to an industry,
employees do not necessarily hold the same view of a technology's promise, regardless of any research showing the
opposite. For example, feedback from our HoloLens user
evaluation raised a concern about the equipment's sophistication possibly posing an obstacle to some engineers, particularly those in the higher age range or those not so
enthusiastic about technology.
Haymes [69] developed a three-point approach to overcoming resistance to technological change in education that
could also be applied to industrial and service operations.
The key elements of his Three-E Strategy are as follows:
1) Evident. Workers need to be aware of the technology
and expect it to be useful.
2) Easy to use. The technology needs to be intuitive to use.
3) Essential. It must become essential to workers and
productivity.
Fundamental to framework success is the implementation
of an effective feedback loop. The implementation of

industry innovation can face many challenges. Resistance
to change can be a significant factor in the outcome of a
business innovation process. Implementing intelligent
immersive technology in the workplace requires substantive changes in policies and procedures. While not all
employees resist technological innovation, resistance to
change in the workplace is not uncommon.
Conclusion and Future Work
The service operations field is complex and knowledge
intensive. It can benefit from the use of intelligent immersive environments and systems to leverage processes and
tasks for field service employees. (Figure 7 summarizes the
main benefits of an intelligent immersive system for service
operations.) Such systems can provide crucial decisionmaking support to assist field service engineers by providing information for accomplishing specific job-related tasks
(e.g., supply, repair, maintenance, and construction work),
using intelligent wearables combined with computational
intelligence techniques. They can promote faster solutions
to everyday tasks, improving the customer experience,
reducing restrictions of time and location, and optimizing
resources. Additionally, they can improve the skills transfer
process, capturing knowledge in real time and empowering
field service professionals. They can place experts' knowledge at the disposal of a distributed workforce, reducing
the risk of delays in service due to errors caused by lack of
familiarity with procedures and tasks.
Industries in highly competitive global markets are looking to the application of intelligent immersive systems and
applications to reduce training costs, improve worker qualifications, and maximize productivity. AR holds particular

Real-Time Support

Knowledge Management

Intelligent Assistance

Provides support enabling
real-time assistance when
needed, using intelligent
wearables with access to
the company's knowledge
assets.

Captures tacit knowledge
in real time, converting it
into explicit knowledge,
available for engineer
training or auditing
purposes.

Provides personalized
decision-making support
using artificial intelligence
techniques.

Engineer

Domain
Expert
Knowledge
Assets

Knowledge
Database

Engineer

Artificial
Intelligence

Active Training

Figure 7. The main benefits of an intelligent immersive system for service operations.

Ja nua r y 2 01 8

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2018

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