IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 54

Remembering Lotfi Zadeh (continued from page 53)
References

sense, trivialized how to compare systems. Prof. Zadeh rejected

[S1] M. A. Boden, "Modelling creativity: Reply to reviewers," Artif.

the assumption that the performance of a system can be

Intell., vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 161-182, 1995.

measured by a single number and argued for a vector

[S2] S. Guadarrama, E. Renedo, and E. Trillas, "A first inquiry on

description and corresponding multiobjective optimization.

semantic-based models of And," in Accuracy and Fuzziness, R.

He relaxed the strong assumption of a total order over systems

Seising, L. Argüelles, Eds. New York: Springer, 2015, pp. 331-350.

to a mere partial order. This elegant little paper launched its

[S3] S. Ovchinnikov, "My journey to fuzziness at Berkeley," in On

own scholarly light cone of Pareto and other techniques for

Fuzziness, vol. II, R. Seising, E. Trillas, C. Moraga, S. Termini, Eds. New

multiobjective optimization.

York: Springer, 2013, pp. 503-506.

The more famous example is Prof. Zadeh's seminal formulation

[S4] R. Seising, "On fuzzy sets and the precisiation of meaning-

of fuzzy set theory in his 1965 paper, "Fuzzy Sets." The paper

An interview with Prof. Dr. Lotfi A. Zadeh," Archives Philosophy His-

boldly extended bivalent sets to multivalent sets. Prof. Zadeh's

tory Soft Computing, vol. 1, pp. 1-18, 2013.

deep insight was akin to that of Henri Lebesgue's when he

[S5] E. Trillas, "Lotfi A. Zadeh: On the man and his work," Scientia

reformulated the integral in 1902: he focused on the range of

Iranica, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 574-579, 2011.

a function rather than its domain. The function here was a set's

[S6] E. Trillas, On the Logos: A Naïve View on Ordinary Reasoning

indicator function that states whether a given element does

and Fuzzy Logic. New York: Springer, 2017.

or does not belong to the set. Prof. Zadeh saw that, in general,

[S7] E. Trillas, C. Moraga, S. Guadarrama, S. Cubillo, and E. Casti-

these indicator values could be any number in the continuum

ñeira, "Computing with antonyms," in Forging New Frontiers, vol.

of the unit interval, so set membership was now a matter of

II, M. Nikravesh, J. Kacprzyk, L. A. Zadeh, Eds. New York: Springer,

degree, and fuzzy sets were born.

2007, pp. 133-153.

No one who knew Prof. Zadeh or his work doubts that he

[S8] E. Trillas, P. P. Bonissone, L. Magdalena, J. Kacprzyk, Eds., Com-

would have won a Nobel Prize if they gave such a prize for

bining Experimentation and Theory: A Homage to Abe Mamdani.

the information sciences. A giant has passed.

New York: Springer, 2012.
[S9] E. Trillas and L. Eciolaza, Fuzzy Logic: An Introductory Course

Madan M. Gupta

for Engineering Students. New York: Springer, 2015.

Fuzzy logic, a new mathematical tool for the analysis and

[S10] J. von Neumann, "The general and logical theory of

management of uncertainty that arises from human cognitive

automata," in Cerebral Mechanisms in Behavior: The Hixon Sym-

processes such as thinking, reasoning, and perception. It was

posium, L. A. Jeffress, Ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 1951.

introduced in 1965 by Prof. Zadeh, "The Father of Fuzzy Logic."

[S11] L. A. Zadeh, "Fuzzy sets," Inf. Control, vol. 8, no.3, pp. 338-353,

Over the last five decades, this new mathematical logic, unlike

1965.

Boolean (binary) logic, has revolutionized relevant tools and

[S12] L. A. Zadeh, "Fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning (In

computing methods for the analysis and management of

memory of Grigori Moisil)," Synthese, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 407-428, 1975.

cognitive uncertainty. More recently, fuzzy logical tools have

[S13] L. A. Zadeh, Computing with Words: Principal Concepts

been used to introduce virtual intelligence into the household,

and Ideas. New York: Springer, 2012.

entertainment, automobiles, and space industries. Fuzzy

[S14] L. A. Zadeh, "Fuzzy logic-A personal perspective," Fuzzy

mathematics have been extensively explored to develop a

Sets Syst., vol. 281, pp. 4-20, Dec. 2015.

new class of expert systems for potential applications in fields
such as medical diagnosis, the control of complex processes,

Bart Kosko

manufacturing processes, art, architecture, music composition,

Prof. Zadeh was a consummate intellectual of the old school.

mining and space exploration, management science, court

You could talk or argue with him about anything. No subject

of law, and stock market evaluation. In general, this innovative

was out of bounds or likely to give offense. The goal was

method of mathematics has proven to be very useful in the

always deeper insight into the matter at hand. The method

creation of a new class of intelligence-virtual intelligence-

was simply giving reasons for claims.

that can solve a category of problems where human

This helps explain why Prof. Zadeh could make so many

intelligence is intimately needed.

profound intellectual contributions in so many fields. He

The theory of fuzzy logic was introduced to me at its very

thought issues through from their foundations, and he did

early stages of inception by its founder, Prof. Zadeh, during

it alone. He usually worked and published as a sole author

the second International Federation of Automatic Control

and struck research gold this way many times.

(IFAC) Symposium held in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia (formerly),

A good example is Prof. Zadeh's 1963 reformulation of

on 26-31 August 1968. I recall my first, pleasant meeting with

multiobjective nonlinear optimization in IEEE Transactions on

Fay and Lotfi at the breakfast table in the hotel on the first

Automatic Control. He took a fresh look at optimal control
theory and found it unduly restrictive. The theory had, in a key

54

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE July 2 0 1 8

(continued on page 55)



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018

Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Cover1
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Cover2
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 2
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 3
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 4
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 5
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 6
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 7
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 8
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 9
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 10
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 11
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 12
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 13
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 14
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 15
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 16
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 17
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 18
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 19
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 20
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 21
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 22
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 23
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 24
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 25
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 26
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 27
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 28
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 29
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 30
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 31
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 32
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 33
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 34
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 35
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 36
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 37
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 38
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 39
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 40
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 41
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 42
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 43
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 44
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 45
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 46
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 47
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 48
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 49
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 50
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 51
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 52
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 53
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 54
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 55
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 56
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Cover3
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0717
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0117
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0716
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0116
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0715
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0115
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com