IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 6

by Danilo Avola, Roberto Caronna,
Luigi Cinque, Gian Luca Foresti,
and Marco Raoul Marini

T

oday, an ever-increasing number of
diseases requiring a surgical solution
are treated by means of minimally
invasive procedures [1]. When possible, these procedures are suggested
instead of traditional approaches because they
decrease both the surgical risk and postsurgery hospitalization. The growing technological advances in terms of imaging techniques
(i.e., visualization of organs and tissues) and
handling of the minimally invasive instruments
(e.g., endoscopes) play a key role in improving
the qualitative aspects of the interventions [2].
An endoscope is a medical device consisting
of a long, thin, flexible or semirigid tube. The
extremity of the tube introduced into the patient
is equipped with a light-emitting diode and a
high-definition microcamera. The other extremity that remains outside the patient includes a set
of mechanical controls, which are activated by
the surgeon or an assistant to allow the pan, tilt,
and roll movements of the microcamera. The
real-time video stream is shown on a screen
placed near the surgeon.
The endoscopes present two main limitations.
First, one of the surgeon's hands is continually
committed to holding and moving the endoscope
to allow the microcamera's movements. This
practice is tiring for the surgeon, who must also

Toward the
Future of Surgery
An Immersive, Virtual-Reality-Based Endoscopic Prototype
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MSMC.2018.2820171
Date of publication: 18 July 2018

6

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE July 2 0 1 8

2333-942X/18©2018IEEE



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018

Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Cover1
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Cover2
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 2
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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Cover3
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Cover4
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