IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 8

Head-Tracking Data
Primary 3-D
Camera
(Endoscope)

Image Stream

Three-Axis Motor
System

Unified

Computer

Moves

Head Tracking

Side-by-Side
Image Stream

Coordinates

HMD

Lens Distorsion
Raw Image Stream

Secondary 3-D
Camera (Frontal)

IR Image Stream

Hand-Tracking Data

Hand Tracking

Unified

Figure 1. the logical architecture of the proposed IVrE system.

only recently, added head-tracking functionality. HMD with head-tracking senRoll Motor
Left Motor Top Motor
sors is a device that integrates the user's
point of view (POV) with his or her head
Anchor Points
movements, generating the immersion
Connection
feeling and allowing the surgeon to conRopes
trol the camera without using his or her
Right Motor
hands. In the proposed system, the headBottom Motor
tracking multisensor [G-sensor + infrared (IR) markers] module can identify
(a)
the 3-D-specific position of the user's
head in a conic area in front of its linked
Y1
IR sensor. Some latency problems may
occur with this kind of device. In generX1
al, if the delay is greater than 13 ms, then
Z
the HMD user can suffer a nausea effect
X2
since the head movement is not properly
synchronized with the displayed images.
To satisfy this minimal threshold and
Y2
avoid motion sickness during use, the
Oculus Rift device was selected, which
(b)
allows to reach high accuracy, high reliability, and lower cost. The Oculus Rift is
Figure 2. the proposed endoscope: (a) the virtual prototype and
(b) final computer-aided design model.
supported by the most popular and powerful 3-D engines, such as Unreal and
Unity,
the
latter
of which was chosen for developing
The Role of the HMD Technology
the
IVRE
system.
Recently, we are exploring the use
Numerous types of displays exist but only a tiny subset
of new devices in the IVRE system, such as the Microof them are VR compatible. HMD technology is a good
soft Hololens.
choice since it furnishes the stereoscopic vision and,
8

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE July 2 0 1 8



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018

Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Cover1
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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Contents
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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - Cover3
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