IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018 - 9

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE

−25°
+25°
0°
0°
0°
0°
Virtual motor Z

0°

0°
0°
+43.7°
−43.7°
0°
0°
Virtual motor Y2

0°

0°
0°
−43.7°
+43.7°
0°
0°
Virtual motor Y1

0°

0°
0°
0°
0°
−43.7°
0°
Virtual motor X2

+43.7°

0°
0°
0°
0°
+43.7°
0°
Virtual motor X1

−43.7°

−23.8°
+23.8°
0°
0°
0°
0°
Physical motor Z

0°

0°
0°
−24.3°
+24.3°
0°
0°

0°

0°
0°
0°
0°

Physical motor Y

Ju ly 2018

+25°
0°
Physical motor X

−25°

−25°
+25°
0°
0°
0°
0°
Sensor c

0°

0°
0°
−25°
+25°
0°
0°
Sensor b

0°

0°
0°
0°
0°
−25°
+25°
0°
Sensor a

Roll −25°
Roll +25°
Tilt −25°
Tilt +25°
Pan −25°
Pan +25°
Rest

Table 1. The angles for each motor in seven different poses.

An Innovative Endoscope
To fully integrate the previously presented principles in current endoscopic systems, it is necessary to
modify the endoscope, its controller,
and the visual feedback to the surgeon. Two simple and effective
endoscope prototypes have been developed for testing the IVRE system.
The first is a real mechanical model,
and the second is a virtual prototype
created with Simulation Mechanical,
a computer-aided design application,
taking inspiration from VR concepts
in medicine [8]. The mechanical
model uses cheap components and is
in a different scale from the endoscope. The physical prototype was
built for testing the performance of
the device in terms of comfort, latency, and ease of use by allowing us to
test the feasibility of the system in
the real world and verify whether the
user is affected by motion sickness.
It consists in a union of a three-axes
FatShark motor system with two
cameras side by side for producing
the desired 3-D effect. The virtual
prototype is a modified model of
endoscope starting from real endoscopes, identifying their measures,
application areas, and physical
details [Figure 2(a)]. Currently, there
are no motorized endoscopes, which
is different from robotic surgery, so
we added five motors that can reproduce the necessary pan/tilt/roll
movements along with four ties connecting the top, bottom, right, and up
motors with the four cardinal points
of the endoscope tip [Figure 2(b)].
The camera can move over the
X (pan) and Y (tilt) axes, while the
fifth motor along the base of the
endoscope reproduces the Z (roll)
axis movement. Each movement of
the surgeon's head can be reproduced by the virtual endoscope by
making the right motors pull. There
is no motorized control over the
dolly movement, so the surgeon
must move it manually along this
axis. In Table 1, angles of physical
and virtual motors for seven different head positions are shown. Concerning virtual motors, we assumed

9



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2018

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