IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 18

Future Directions
The demand for infrastructure system-of-systems modeling and analysis is growing rapidly, and, at the same
time, the capabilities are quickly evolving. Since embarking on the ITRC program, we have seen several dedicated infrastructure units being established in countries
around the world, including the National Infrastructure
Commission in the United Kingdom. The ITRC is receiving a growing number of inquiries from organizations in
national governments and at subnational levels on applying an evidence-based methodology for infrastructure
assessment and prioritization.
Alongside the proliferation of national infrastructure
initiatives [31], there is growing interest in strategic infrastructure provision at the subnational scale, notably for
large cities and city regions. This reflects the devolution
of powers, for example, for transport planning and the
increasing recognition of infrastructure quality and resilience as attributes of competitiveness [32]. These subnational studies provide opportunities to examine
infrastructure interdependencies in greater depth. However, they also present more challenging boundary problems of characterizing the interactions between a city
and its hinterland and neighbors. City boundaries vary
depending on the criterion used (e.g., legal jurisdiction,
population density, and percentage of the workforce
commuting to the city center). Cities depend upon their
hinterlands for water, energy, and other resources. All of

these issues present challenges for integrated infrastructure assessment at the city or regional scale.
In this article, I separated consideration of infrastructure
interrelationships in long-term planning from their role in
the analysis of the risks of infrastructure failure. This separation reflects the different methodological approaches we
have adopted in our ITRC research program, but they converge in significant respects. Reliability is one of the main
attributes of the quality of an infrastructure service. A mention of reliability naturally prompts questions about the circumstances in which infrastructure fails to deliver the
requisite level of service, which our methodologies for analysis of risk and resilience are designed to answer.
These methodologies are becoming increasingly
sophisticated in their representation of the processes that
are enacted on networks, e.g., transport rerouting during
times of disruption, which involves the same tools that are
being used for transport planning in NISMOD2. There is
apparently a convergence of the analysis of interdependent
infrastructure systems, which operates on a continuum
from everyday operating conditions to major disruptions
during the most catastrophic events. Moreover, resilience
and adaptability to climate change are increasingly being
seen as critical attributes of infrastructure plans. Thus,
long-term planning and management of risks to infrastructure are increasingly converging.
Acquiring the data on infrastructure networks, the processes that are enacted on those networks and the people

Integrated Electricity Network

Infrastructure Dependent on
Electricity for Operation

Transmission (400 kV, 275 kV, 132 kV)
Large-Capacity Generation

Subtransmission (132 kV, 33 kV)
Medium-Capacity Generation

Distribution (33 kV, 11 kV, 415 V)
Small-Capacity Generation

33-kV Connections
* Ports
* Airports
* Railways

11-kV Connections
* Water Towers
* Wastewater Treatment
* Telecommunication Masts

Figure 3. An electricity transmission and distribution model for Great Britain, with infrastructure interdependencies.

18

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Ju ly 2019



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019

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