IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 24

Longevity is not only an issue with boilers but also with
all types of flexible devices. MacDougall et al. provide a
detailed analysis of the longevity of heat pumps for residential use [5]. Additionally, such devices after use for storing or obtaining energy, may require recovery time (e.g.,
keeping a heater off for a particular period to allow the
temperature to decrease, or recharging a battery for some
hours.). Approaches that use flexibility should consider
such characteristics.
A final aspect is the uncertainty, which
comes
from the user behavior and the
Power Decrease Potential
24
amount of information that is transferred
to the entity that controls the demand
response actions. Consider an electric boil2
er used for demand response that does not
send explicit information about its individual SoC and dimensions, nor about its
16
future requirements to deliver hot water.
1.5
This means that the central controller can
only assume average boiler behavior for an
average consumer. As such, the response
to an action for increasing or decreasing
1
consumption will be less predictable than
8
when the detailed SoC data and the forecasted future usage are sent to an aggrega0.5
tor. In general, demand response solutions
4
need to be able to adapt to the uncertainty
2
caused by unexpected use and an incom1
plete understanding of the state of the elec0
0
5 10 15 20
trical appliance.

Power Increase Potential

2

Pdec (kW)

Pinc (kW)

1.5

1

0.5

0

5

10
15
20
Time of Day (h)
(a)

∆t (h)

comprising 418 smart appliances in 186 households in
Belgium [4]. Figure 2 shows the flexibility potential of an
average domestic hot-water buffer, with its potential to
increase electrical consumption ^ Pinc h or to decrease it
^ Pdec h . It also reveals that the hot-water consumption
profile influences this potential during the day. The colors indicate how long this increase or decrease can hold,
i.e., the flexibility's longevity.

Time of Day (h)
(b)

Figure 2. Graphs showing the flexibility potential of an average

domestic hot-water buffer from the Local Intelligent Networks and
Energy Active Regions pilot: (a) with the potential to increase electrical
consumption and (b) to decrease the electrical consumption [4]. Pdec:
power decrease: Pinc: power increase; h: hours; Tt : the amount of time
(hours) during which flexibility can be delivered.

Step 1
Constraints
Aggregation

PHEV
Fleet
Agent

Step 2
Constraints
Optimization

PHEV
Fleet
Agent

Step 3
Real-Time
Control

PHEV
Fleet
Agent

Figure 3. An illustration showing the three-step approach for

charging a PHEV fleet [6].

24

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Ju ly 2019

Residential Demand Response
for Different Purposes
To be relevant for market trading, small
amounts of flexibility from individual devices need to be aggregated at a higher level. If
demand response is coordinated to achieve
sufficient aggregation to participate in the
energy market, a three-step approach is
useful (Figure 3). Consider the example of
charging a large fleet of PHEVs  [6], where
the aggregated flexibility is used to trade
on the day-ahead energy market.
In the first step, the flexibility of the
individual vehicles is considered, together
with its constraints (derived from the
expected departure time of the vehicle
and the SoC of the battery). This local willingness to charge each PHEV results in a
priority value. This priority value p t
increases over time as the need for immediate charging becomes larger. The constraints of the individual cars, both in
terms of charging power and in terms of
energy, are then aggregated as constraints
of the fleet (or of the aggregator that uses



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019

Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 2
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 3
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 4
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 5
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 6
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 7
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 8
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 9
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 10
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 11
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 12
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 13
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 14
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 15
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 16
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 17
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 18
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 19
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 20
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 21
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 22
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 23
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 24
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 25
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 26
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 27
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 28
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 29
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 30
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 31
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 32
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 33
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 34
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 35
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 36
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 37
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 38
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 39
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 40
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 41
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 42
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 43
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 44
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 45
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 46
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 47
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 48
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 49
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 50
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 51
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 52
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 53
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 54
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 55
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 56
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 57
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 58
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 59
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 60
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 61
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 62
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 63
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 64
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0717
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0117
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0716
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0116
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0715
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0115
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com