IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 56

cover for situations for which they
Autonomous Systems
never had a hint. These technologies
Are Not Evolutionary
Google's
AutoML
is
are limited by the upper limit of our
Systems (Yet)
not
fundamentally
(i.e., scientists, engineers, and develAutonomous systems are highly
opers) knowledge and imagination.
automated systems, but they do
different from an
These systems cannot evolve on
not have intelligence in the
automatic tuning
their own. The hype of an AI agent
sense that we label a human
creating a child agent is largely misbeing as intelligent. If these sysprocess and should
represented and misinterpreted. For
tems are not performing well,
never be treated
example, the release of the AutoML
there is a group of humans
package from Google [12] created a
behind the technology who are
as an intelligent
big wave of news that Google had
responsible for them. In that
entity in an
created an AI that can construct
sense, an autonomous system is
evolutionary sense.
machine learning models that outnot very different from a softperform human-designed models
ware-controlled device, e.g., a
[13], [14]. However, in reality, the
mobile phone or a spreadsheet
AutoML system is an iterative proprogram. Technologies used in
cess to improve model architecture on a held-out validaautonomous systems are robust and are a result of our
tion set (see Figure 3). Therefore, it is not fundamentally
long-term collective research, but they are not able to
different from an automatic tuning process and should
never be treated as an intelligent entity in an evolutionary sense.
Even using some form of evolutionary algorithms in
Sample Architecture A
With Probability p
building these autonomous systems will not make them
evolutionary systems, as the evolutionary algorithms we
have designed so far cannot even come close to mimickTrains a Child Network
The Controller
With Architecture
ing the natural evolution process from a computational
(RNN)
A to Get Accuracy R
tractability point of view. Therefore, the autonomous systems we design in the near future will not be evolutionary
at all.
Compute Gradient of p and
Scale It by R to Update
the Controller
Figure 3. The Google AutoML process [12]. AutoML's

release stoked fears of autonomous systems evolving
on their own, but the system is not fundamentally
different from an automatic tuning process. (Source:
https://pixabay.com/)

Persistent?
(P)

Trust Building-History and the Way Forward
The autonomous system should perform the operation
based on the best effective strategy, which may be
opposed to the supervising human's personal preferences.
However, it must adapt to human preferences to establish
mutual trust.

Technically
Competent?
(TCP)
Responsible?
(FR)

Trust
Exp (P + TCP + FR )

Figure 4. The concept of trust illustrated according to [15]."Trust (T ) is

the expectation (E ), held by a member (i) of a system, of persistence
(P ) of the natural (n) and moral social (m) orders, and of technically
competent performance (TCP ), and of fiduciary responsibility (FR ),
from a member (j ) of the system, and is related to, but not necessarily
isomorphic with, objective measures of these qualities."
56

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Ju ly 2019

Conventional Methods
of Building Trust
The building of trust between humans and
machines could be developed in a manner
similar to the development of trust between
humans. In 1987, Muir [15] described the
stages for the development of trust in a
human-machine relationship, which might
also apply to the human-autonomous system relationship (see Figure 4).
In general, the development of trust
passes through three stages. In the first
stage, a person bases his or her trust in an
autonomous robot on predictability, by
observing the consistency and repeatability of the robot behavior. Next, trust relies
on dependable disposition. At this stage,
the experience of risky events is required


https://www.pixabay.com/

IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019

Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 2
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 3
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 4
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 5
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 6
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 7
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 8
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 9
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 10
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 11
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 12
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 13
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 14
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 15
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 16
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 17
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 18
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 19
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 20
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 21
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 22
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 23
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 24
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 25
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 26
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 27
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 28
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 29
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 30
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 31
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 32
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 33
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 34
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 35
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 36
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 37
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 38
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 39
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 40
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 41
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 42
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 43
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 44
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 45
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 46
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 47
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 48
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 49
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 50
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 51
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 52
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 53
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 54
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 55
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 56
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 57
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 58
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 59
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 60
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 61
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 62
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 63
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 64
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0717
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0117
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0716
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0116
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0715
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0115
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com