IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019 - 63

Repeat Pass

ICD

Illustration

Removed

Inserted

Initial Pass

Stationary

nature of the ocean, the CCD tool is not
always reliable. On the other hand, ICD generates a log-ratio difference map to expose
the presence of significant changes occurring between passes. Unlike the CCD tool,
it is difficult for the ICD tool to isolate subtle changes. However, the ICD change map
has proven to be resilient for longer periods, compared to CCD. Therefore, the application can dictate which tool will provide
results that are more meaningful. Currently, the focus is on the ICD change map due
to the dependence of CCD on coherent
data, which is difficult to obtain due to the
temporally variant nature of the ocean. The
corresponding incoherent change map of
the pair of images introduced in Figure 1
can be seen in Figure 3(c).

Figure 4. The results of the ICD change map depend on whether an

object is present in the initial pass, the repeat pass, or both.

Detecting Changes
In the detection stage, image snippets containing anomalies are identified for adaptive thresholding. Assigning a
user-defined threshold is an extremely challenging problem due to the automated ACD process. This is particularly true for ICD change maps. For anomaly detection,

pixels of interest in an incoherent change map result
from two events, either a new object appearing in the
repeat-pass that was not in the initial pass or a removed
(or moved) object that was in the initial pass but not in
the repeat pass. In Figure 4, initial-pass and repeat-pass
image snippets are shown with their corresponding

Figure 5. The resulting snippets from the repeat-pass image that correspond to anomaly locations resulting

from the zero-detect thresholding method.

Ju ly 2019

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE

63



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2019

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