IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2019 - 17

technology but also economic and sociocultural sectors.
deviation from norms or rational judgment in which
However, this article (as with others) addresses abstract
human cognition reliably produces representations
science, concrete science, and applied technologies. These
that are systematically distorted compared to some
perspectives focus on increasing presence and importance
aspect of objective reality [8]. This blocks an individual
in long-term research and developfrom using an object in a new way
ment; the benefits of committing to
to solve a problem, thereby limiting
envisioning, designing, and implethe ability to use an object to only
Neural research has
menting novel science and technolthe way it is traditionally used and
ogy; the tools and techniques used
demonstrating that previous knowlshown that functional
to realize that commitment; and
edge of a tool's function can negafixedness and alphaexamples of domains historically
tively impact its use in novel contexts
considered distinct being trans[9]. In short, pictures and words
wave activity are
formed into a de novo entity.
can influence access to semantic
strongly related to
knowledge for object concepts
imagination and
differently, thereby influencing
Designing the Future
functional fixedness in creative
This article investigates future scicreative thinking.
thinking. Furthermore, a key funcence and technology, a blend of factional fixedness factor in creative
tors not always given priority in
thinking is stimulus modality, the
normative laboratory procedures,
sensory perception quality associated with an explicit
and presents examples of hypothetical and theoretical sysstimulus [10].
tems (those based on hypotheses and theories, respectively)
that require transdisciplinarity (siloed disciplines melded
◆ Electroencephalogram studies show that increased
into a new conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and
frontal and right parietal alpha wave activity is sensitranslational domain that transcends traditional boundartive to demands associated with creativity and creative
ies); imagination, insight [1], and intuition; and intellectual
activity. Internal processing demands are reflected in
and creative flexibility. Also, they must be driven by a scienincreased alpha waves during creative cognition [11].
tific mind-set, as the esteemed mathematician David Hilbert
Furthermore, a review of a wide range of papers
was in his 1930 speech in Königsberg when he objected to
addressing creativity correlates concludes that these fall
Du Bois-Reymond's then popular assertion ignoramus et
into cognitive, emotional/motivational, and neural categoignorabimus (we do not know and will not know) [2] by
ries [12]:
proclaiming, "We must know; we will know!" [3].
◆ cognitive: convergent and persistent thinking, divergent
Perhaps the two most insightful quotations regarding
and flexible thinking, and incubation-driven processes
imagination, creativity, and future science and technology,
◆ emotional/motivational: creativity and divergent
and the most relevant to the subject at hand, are those of
thinking triggered by both appetitive cues (e.g., love
Albert Einstein, who said, "Imagination is more important
and mating cues) and positive emotions (e.g., happithan knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imaginess and joy) but also by aversive cues and negative
nation embraces the entire world, stimulating progress,
emotions, depending on the situation
giving birth to evolution. It is, strictly speaking, a real fac◆ neural: interaction between creative ideation- and
tor in scientific research," [4] and Arthur C. Clarke, who
insight-associated brain regions; neurohormonal modremarked, "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indisulators, such as dopamine and oxytocin; and genetic
tinguishable from magic" [5]. Another key concept entails
constituents.
concrete sciences (CSs) and abstract sciences (ASs), the
Interestingly, another perspective asserts that imaginalatter based in part on denotational mathematics [6]-
tion and creativity are not equivalent or interchangeable,
mathematical structures that deal with entities beyond
instead holding that imagination is an instance of ideation,
numbers and sets, including abstract objects, complex
whereas creativity is an activity that implements the imagrelations, concepts, and knowledge [7]-along with
ined idea [13].
applied technologies (ATs). For applications, see the section "Implementing Future Hypothetical and Theoretical
Envisioning Future Hypothetical and
Transdisciplinary Systems."
Theoretical Transdisciplinary Systems
Ideating and designing a de novo complex system involves
Imagination and Creativity
1) imagination and creativity, 2) the successful interdigitaNeural research has shown that functional fixedness and
tion of a range of historically distinct disciplines, and 3)
alpha-wave activity are strongly related to imagination and
confidence when engaging a medium- to long-horizon percreative thinking:
spective. Beyond imagination and creativity, such an effort,
therefore, requires the skills and knowledge of both trans◆ Functional fixedness is essentially a one-tool, onedisciplinary R&D and futurology techniques.
function cognitive bias (a systematic pattern of
O c tob e r 2019

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE

17



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2019

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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2019 - Contents
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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2019 - Cover3
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