IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2019 - 20

prostheses structured as engineered
◆ temporal windows of operation (current, emergent, and
genetic sequences ex pressed as
A foundation of
envisioned)
modified intracranial neuronal tiscurrent science and
sue having preprogrammed techno◆ overlapping and disjoint comlogical functions. As can be seen in
ponents and functions
technology must
Figure 2, the range of technologies
◆ time-shift hor izon (current
support a wide range
in the enplant environment is
to obsolescence, emergent to
expanded significantly, encompasscurrent, a nd env isioned to
of functionality that
ing existing, emerging, and enviemergent)
is expected to have
sioned technologies in the three
◆ po s t prot ot y pe oper at ion s
a stable and lengthy
primary elements of the transdis(manufacturing, population
ciplinary system: a biological
engagement, sales, distribuutilitarian lifespan.
brain-machine interface (bBMI)
tion, and support).
Of
the aforementioned elecomprising in vivo expressed bioments, the overriding differentiatimplants, real-time counterfactual
ing elements relative to normative development are
quantum communications (in which entanglement and
extended time frame, distal temporal horizon, higher probquantum key distribution can occur without particle interabilistic realization challenges, and, despite robust sysaction) [19]-[23], and ex vivo technologies. Furthermore, it
tems simulation, increased risk. As a result, this process
is possible that the proposed bBMI real-time neurologienters the realm of futurology (see Table 2 and the section
cal diagnosis, therapy, and functional augmentation
"Envisioning Future Hypothetical and Theoretical Transcould integrate with the user's physiological perception
disciplinary Systems"). These parameters underscore the
and awareness.
criticality of selecting the sciences and technologies to
serve as the key current, emergent, and envisioned
Implementing Future Hypothetical and
Theoretical Transdisciplinary Systems
elements of a proposed hypothetical or theoretical transThe implementation of a proposed system involves three
disciplinary system.
interdependent temporal technological phases that overlap
in several ways, the critical elements being relationships
Key Science and Technology
among key sciences and technologies:
A foundation of current science and technology must support a wide range of functionality that is expected to have
◆ primary domains (abstract science, concrete science,
a stable and lengthy utilitarian lifespan. Although defining
and applied technologies)

Biological Brain-Machine Interface (β BMI)

In Vivo
Enplant

Advanced Materials
Artificial Life
Bionanoprotonics
Bionanotechnology
Genomic Engineering
Neuromorphic Implants
Photonic Synapses
Synthetic Biology

Quantum
Network

Counterfactual
Entanglement
Decoherence Prevention
Optical Quantum Memory
Network Performance

Ex Vivo
Technology

Closed-Loop Systems
Locked-In Communications
Neural Signal Analysis
Neural Signal Feedback
Neural Signal Recording
Physical Movement
Stroke Recovery

Research Technology

Figure 2. The Biological Brain-Machine Interface Conceptual Framework. Shading indicates key technologies:

enplant (red), quantum network (yellow), external BMI hardware, software and systems (orange), and
neocortex/quantum link/exocortex exocortical cognitive interface. (Source: S. Mason Dambrot [17].)

20

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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2019

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