IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2020 - 38

monitoring, object detection and classification, sensor
fusion, and instance association
◆ L3 (partial automation): motion planning, decision
making based on safety and legal requirements, situational awareness, and human-driver monitoring
◆ L4-L5 (high- and full automation): autonomous emergency-situation handling and moving to a safe state;
full system diagnostics; and sensor, software, and
hardware redundancy.

autonomous-vehicle prototyping and production. Rapidly
evolving sensor and processing platform technologies and
the agile working method force developers to keep a flexible prototyping platform for testing, which relies on nonautomotive-grade, general-purpose computing on graphics
processing units (GPUs). Very few processing platforms satisfy the strict safety requirements of the ISO 26262 automotive-safety integrity levels (ASILs), and their computational
capacity is limited compared to the GPU devices. This
inherently dictates that technical solutions need to satisfy
the functional requirements and guarantee low- and highlevel safety; they must also be optimized for dedicated
hardware platforms where of the all static and modular
components require high levels of ASIL certification.

Functional and Technical Safety
The functional safety of the electrical and electric components of production automobile systems is defined by a
well-established standard, ISO 26262, Road Vehicles:
Functional Safety [7]. Regardless the technical solution
and the derived feature, ISO 26262 provides requirements
Test Scenarios
for the validation and verification of the components in
It is a common view that the validation of self-driving techproduction. It has been widely applied to ADAS systems,
nology is only possible through scenario-based testing.
following development and testing
L3-plus systems utilize artificial
according to the V-model. Thereintelligence (AI)-based algorithms
fore, it can be referred to as a lowin high volumes. The verification
level safety approach, ensuring
of those algorithms is not yet posWith functioning
that the malfunction of the composible by following the standard
prototypes of highly
nent as a device does not lead to
automotive approach since detersignificant damage to the vehicle
ministic performance cannot be
automated vehicles
and passengers/vulnerable road
proven from the viewpoint of autobeing tested on public
users. However, for highly automotive safety. Statistical, datamated systems, this does not
driven, formal safety approaches
roads on a daily
address the question of whether a
and statistical validation/provenbasis, new challenges
function is able to correctly comin-use arguments of ISO 26262and tasks confront
prehend a situation and behave
8:2011 are emerging solutions,
safely; neither does it account for
though not widely accepted for
the developer
the robustness of a function in the
software components by most of
communities.
presence of signal noise.
the car manufacturers. The use of
High-level safety can be adstandardized test methods, qualidressed by ensuring robust sensor
fied virtual simulators, and exteninterfacing, reliable processing alsive road testing is inevitable.
gorithms, and traceable and safe decision making. The
Common sense implies that technical solutions should
Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) standard
first be tested in virtual environments, following the wellfor ADAS, initiated by the ISO Working Draft for Publicly
established methods of software-in-the-loop (SiL) and hardAvailable Specification 21448 group, is under development
ware-in-the-loop (HiL) evaluations, after which the dedicated
to amend ISO 26262 to address these issues; therefore, it
edge cases and features should be tested in closed-track enviis closely related to the current functional-safety requireronments. Public road testing should be only allowed once
ments and prototype-level technical solutions. The SOTIF
those phases are beyond the software-package release; howstandard is in the publication stage and available for interever, as laid-out standards do not exist for this chain of testnal review [8]. High-level safety is part of the technicaling, deviations may occur among development groups in
safety concept, where, in terms of system testing on public
terms of pass and "go/no-go" criteria. Regardless of the testing
roads, systems-level safety (intended and unintended disenvironment, three types of scenarios can be distinguished:
engagements, fault injections, and so forth) and testing
1) Verification of new features based on acting laws and
safety (test-driver qualification, handover tests, and situastandards: These scenarios are created in parallel with
tional awareness on the human and machine sides) are
the functional requirements and focus on modular and
addressed in the workflow.
system testing.
2) Free-ride evaluations based on real-world situations
that are available from online public road-testing inforHardware and Software Realization
mation and the reconstruction of incidents through
The realization of a technical-solution software package on
large international traffic databases: These scenarios
dedicated hardware is one of the vast gaps between
38

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Janu ar y 2020



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2020

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