IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2020 - 40

approved for production. Components that provide higher
levels of ADAS and stability-safety features, such as electronic stability control and lane-keeping assistance, are required
to be tested on dedicated tracks or qualified simulators. The
NCAP rating system provides a limited number of verified
scenarios under which such features should be tested, but
the list is strictly limited to ADAS features [11]. However, it is
easy to see that the number of required test scenarios rapidly
grows for highly automated systems. As discussed in the previous section, predefined scenarios play an important role in
the safety-development pipeline, which indicates that providing a verified set of scenarios is yet another challenge to be
solved to create a qualified simulation environment for developing and testing self-driving solutions.
Conclusion
Self-driving cars have radically changed the way automotive safety influences the technology-development pipeline. Traditional approaches may still be applied to some
extent; however, new features and testing requirements
pose outstanding challenges. To address them, we proposed a new pipeline for technology development, where
automotive safety plays a crucial role in each step of the
process. The pipeline summarized how current automotive
standards are introduced into an agile software-development process, facilitating the parallel evolution of functional requirements and technical solutions by relying on
various testing and validation methods. We described how
simulation can aid the development and testing of new
components from simple building blocks to complete solutions, and it addressed some of the most important challenges in simulation-tool verification.
With functioning prototypes of highly automated vehicles being tested on public roads on a daily basis, new
challenges and tasks confront the developer communities.
These include the verification issues of AI-based algorithms,
scalability of formal logic in decision-making processes,
testing requirements and the concept of safe prototype
testing, verification of collected and processed data, cybersecurity and data privacy, and infrastructure development.
The productization of such systems strictly requires the
solution to those problems to evolve in parallel to the
endeavors of reaching technological maturity. This is where
new processes, evolving standards, and verification methods will continue to serve as a guideline for development
communities to bring safe road transportation to reality.

About the Authors
Árpád Takács (arpad.takacs@irob.uni-obuda.hu) is with the
Antal Bejczy Center for Intelligent Robotics at the University
Research and Innovation Center, Óbuda University, Budapest,
Hungary, and AImotive, Budapest.
Dániel András Drexler (daniel.drexler@irob.uni-obuda
.hu) is with the Antal Bejczy Center for Intelligent Robotics
at the University Research and Innovation Center, Óbuda
University, Budapest, Hungary.
Péter Galambos (peter.galambos@irob.uni-obuda.hu)
is with the Antal Bejczy Center for Intelligent Robotics at
the University Research and Innovation Center, Óbuda
University, Budapest, Hungary.
Imre J. Rudas (imre.rudas@irob.uni-obuda.hu) is with
the Antal Bejczy Center for Intelligent Robotics at the University Research and Innovation Center, Óbuda University,
Budapest, Hungary.
Tamás Haidegger (tamas.haidegger@irob.uni-obuda
.hu) is with the Antal Bejczy Center for Intelligent Robotics
at the University Research and Innovation Center, Óbuda
University, Budapest, Hungary. He is a Bolyai Fellow of the
Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Tamás Csizmadia (tamas.csizmadia@aimotive.com)
is with AImotive, Budapest, Hungary.
References
[1] A. Takács, I. J. Rudas, D. Bösl, and T. Haidegger, "Highly automated vehicles
and self-driving cars," IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 106-112,
2018.
[2] Road Vehicles-Functional Safety, International Standard ISO/FDIS 26262,
2011.
[3] A. Takacs, D. A. Drexler, P. Galambos, I. J. Rudas, and T. Haidegger, "Assessment
and standardization of autonomous vehicles," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Intelligent
Engineering Systems, 2018, pp. 185-191.
[4] IEEE Model Process for Addressing Ethical Concerns During System Design,
IEEE Standard P7000 series, 2016.
[5] International Civil Aviation Organization, "International standards and recommended practices, annex 10 to the convention on international civil aviation," in Radio
Navigation Aids, vol. 1. Montreal: ICAO, 1996.
[6] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, "U.S. department of transportation
releases policy on automated vehicle development," NHTSA Press Release 14-13, U.S.
Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 2013.
[7] H. Täubig et al., "Guaranteeing functional safety: Design for provability and computer-aided verification," Auton. Robot, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 303-331, 2012.
[8] Road vehicles-Safety of the Intended Functionality, International Standard ISO/
AWI ISO/AWI PAS 21448, to be published.
[9] I. G. Dubar, R. Bogdan, and M. Popa, "External rapid prototyping validation

Acknowledgments
The research presented in this article was carried out as
part of the Emberi Ero˝ forrás Fejlesztési Operatív Programból-3.6.2-16-2017-00016 project in the framework of
the New Széchenyi Plan. The completion of this project
was funded by the European Union and cofinanced by the
European Social Fund. Tamás Haidegger was supported
through the New National Excellence Program of the Hungary Ministry of Human Capacities.
40

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Janu ar y 2020

system for the automotive development cycle," Acta Polytech. Hung., vol. 14, no. 6,
pp. 41-57, 2017.
[10] Z. Zhang, E. Eyisi, X. Koutsoukos, J. Porter, G. Karsai, and J. Sztipanovits, "A cosimulation framework for design of time-triggered automotive cyber physical systems,"
Simul. Model. Pract. Theory, vol. 43, pp. 16-33, Apr. 2014.
[11] D. A. Drexler, A. Takács, T. D. Nagy, and T. Haidegger, "Handover process of
autonomous vehicles: Technology and application challenges," Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 235-255, 2019.



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