IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2020 - 51

future research into the HMD IVR METS should pay
more attention to it.
To further verify the results, we conducted a questionnaire evaluation of 100 students without using the two
training systems. The results were basically consistent
with the previous ones.

[3] Z. J. S. X. Gan Huibing, "Application research of LNG carrier engine room simulator in maritime education and training," in Proc. 1st DMU Int. Conf. Maritime
Education and Training, 2016, pp. 125-130.
[4] E. Z. Song, B. L. Song, and M. A. Xiu-Zhen, "Development of a semi-physical simulation platform for a marine diesel electronic control system," J. Harbin Eng. Univ.,
vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1153-1160, 2010.
[5] C. Hui, J. Baozhu, D. Yao, and Z. Jundong, "The application and development of

Conclusion
In this article, we classified the VR METS into two categories according to the difference between the input and
output devices: the VR METS and HMD IVT METS. We
developed an HMD IVR METS based on HTC Vive Pro
hardware. Compared with the desktop VR METS, users
received full immersion in the HMD IVT METS and were
able to operate the machines as though they were in a
real marine ER. Thirty marine-engineering students
were selected to test the system, and the results showed
that the HMD IVR METS had more advantages than the
desktop VR METS. Sur veying another 100 students
without using the two training systems produced a similar outcome.

marine engine room simulator in the field of maritime training," Res. Notes Inform.
Sci., vol. 11, p. 29, Jan. 2013.
[6] J. Zhou, L. Xu, Y. Hu, and K. Zhu, "The construction of virtual human in virtual
environment of marine engine room," in Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Computer Engineering
and Technology, 2010, pp. V7-V696-V7-699.
[7] S. G. Zamani, M. Mohamadi, and S. A. Hosseiniazad, "The evolution of international
legal regime for the protection of marine environment against land-based pollutants from
Montego Bay to Cartagena," J. Oceanogr., vol. 6, no. 21, pp. 37-48, 2015.
[8] D. Bin Hu, J. Hui Hu, and X. Wei Lin, "Study on technology development of power
system training simulator for modern ship," Appl. Mech. Mater., vol. 220-223, pp. 714-
718, Nov. 2012.
[9] M. C. Lin, M. A. Otaduy, and R. Boulic, "Virtual reality software and technology,"
IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 18-19, 2008.
[10] D. A. Bowman and R. P. Mcmahan, "Virtual reality: How much immersion is
enough?" Computer, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 36-43, 2007.

About the Authors
Yanghui Tan (tyanghui@163.com) earned his B.S. and M.S.
degrees in marine engineering from Dalian Maritime University, China, in 2013 and 2016, respectively. He is pursuing his
D.S. degree in marine engineering from Dalian Maritime
University. His research interests include marine engineroom simulators and virtual reality.
Chunyang Niu (niuchunyangyx@163.com) is pursuing
his M.S. degree in marine engineering from Dalian Maritime
University, China. His research interests include marine
engine-room simulators and virtual reality.
Jundong Zhang (zhjundongpaper@163.com)
earned his B.S., M.S., and D.S. degrees in marine engineering from Dalian Maritime University, China, in 1989,
1992, and 1998, respectively. He is a full professor at
Dalian Maritime University. His research interests
include marine-engineering automation and control,
integrated supervision, the application of computers and
networks, marine-engineering education, and electricalsystem design.

[11] Z. Liang, K. Zhou, and K. Gao, "Development of virtual reality serious game for
underground rock-related hazards safety training," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 118,639-
118,649, Aug. 2019.
[12] F. Buttussi and L. Chittaro, "Effects of different types of virtual reality display on
presence and learning in a safety training scenario," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 1063-1076, 2017.
[13] L. Chittaro, "Designing serious games for safety education: 'Learn to Brace' versus
traditional pictorials for aircraft passengers," IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics,
vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1527-1539, 2015.
[14] A. Schnack, M. J. Wright, and J. L. Holdershaw, "Immersive virtual reality technology in a three-dimensional virtual simulated store: Investigating telepresence and
usability," Food Res. Int., vol. 117, pp. 40-49, Mar. 2019.
[15] B. R. T. Stone, E. Mclaurin, P. Zhong, and K. Watts, "Full virtual reality vs. integrated virtual reality training in welding," Weld. J., vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 167-174, 2013.
[16] H. Kaufmann and D. Schmalstieg, "Designing immersive virtual reality for geometry education," in Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality Conf. (VR 2006), 2006, pp. 51-58.
[17] M. Jez et al., "A shared immersive virtual environment for improving ship design
review." in Technology and Science for the Ships of the Future, A. Marinò and V. Bucci,
Eds. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, 2018, pp. 770-777.
[18] W. Kil, M. Son, and J. Lee, "Development of VR ship environment for the education-

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