IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2020 - 7

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mechanisms, memories, consciousness, and their engineering applications. BCSs involve the cutting-edge field of
intelligent systems based on transdisciplinary theoretical
foundations of system, brain, intelligence, knowledge, and
cybernetic and cognitive sciences, as well as denotational
mathematics [1], [5], [6], [11], [18], [23], [26], [30]. A BCS is a
synergy of hybrid human-machine systems in the context
of cognitive cybernetics. Emerging paradigms of BCSs are
the cognitive Internet of Things (IoT) and the Internet of
Minds. These systems have paved the way to understand
cybernetics and human brains as the last frontier of
abstract science and novel engineering applications in
autonomous, cognitive, and cybernetic systems.
All human-made sciences, technologies, and systems are
perceived to be brain-driven and brain-inspired. Therefore,
studies on the cognitive foundations of natural intelligence
may shed light on the general mechanisms of various forms
of intelligence toward pervasive BCS applications. Many
important discoveries and innovative technologies are

directly or indirectly inspired by the human brain, as it is
perhaps the most matured intelligent system. Some wellknown inventions in technologies and systems have been
inspired by the brain, either intentionally or unintentionally,
i.e., diodes, transistors, and artificial neural networks (Figure 1). Modern computers, AI, autonomous and cognitive
systems, robots, and the IoT are typical BCS paradigms.
This article explores the theories and applications of
BCSs that are underpinned by transdisciplinary studies in
cognitive cybernetics, humanity, and system science. The
neurological and cognitive foundations of BCSs, particularly the neural system model of consciousness as the kernel
of natural intelligence and the cognitive model of the brain
as the most complex system, are elaborated on in "The
Neurological and Cognitive Foundations of the Brain" section, which describes the theory of abstract intelligence
(aI ) as the logical model of BCSs. "The Mission and
Themes of TC-BCSs" section introduces the topics of the
newly established IEEE SMCS Technical Committee on
BCSs (TC-BCSs) toward an overarching study on contemporary BCSs, i.e., brain-machine systems, cognitive computers, cognitive robots, cognitive machine learning
systems, cognitive neural networks, cognitive knowledge
bases, semantic comprehension systems, big data systems,
deep learning systems, intelligent unmanned systems,
self-driving vehicles, cognitive IoTs, and hybrid human-
machine systems.
The Neurological and Cognitive
Foundations of the Brain
The brain as a highly matured intelligent system is an ideal reference model for revealing the theoretical foundations and
general properties of AI. It explains that AI may or may not be
constrained by the nature and expressive power of current
mathematical methods for computational implementations.
Consciousness: The Kernel of Natural Intelligence
It is profound to consider the seat of consciousness and
how it is generated in the brain as a highly complex cognitive mechanism of the mind based on its biological and
physiological metabolism. Anatomical evidence [7], [19] has
suggested the cerebellum stores memories and functions,
as illustrated in Figure 2, even though they were not directly linked to the embodiment of consciousness. The cerebellum is then pinpointed as the seat of consciousness,
represented by a cognitive map of the body [22], [30]. The
cerebellum's anterior lobe is mainly responsible for representing and monitoring the entire body's status. However,
the posterior lobe maintains the permanent skills acquired
in the form of long-term procedural memory [9], [33].
The internal representation of human consciousness in
the cerebellum (formally analyzed in [24]), is functionally
recognized as the conscious status memory (CSM), a new
type of human memory that supplements other memories,
as formally described in the cognitive memory model
(CMM) of the brain as a logical partition of the human
Ja nu a r y 2020

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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2020

Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2020 - Cover1
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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2020 - Contents
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