IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2020 - 9

The conscious model of human selfhood embodied in
CSM may explain many fundamental questions about the
classic brain and mind issue. For instance, consciousness
is equivalent to the brain's operating system (BOS) [22],
[29], which monitors and controls all states of the brain,
body, and internal/external environments, as well as the
coherent interactions among them.
The Reference Model of the Brain and BrainInspired Systems
Since a computer may only be explained via reducing its
logical models to low-level implementations in chips, a
similar reductive mapping approach may be best for
understanding the brain. A layered reference model of the
brain (LRMB), which describes a logical architecture and
the mechanisms of the brain, is introduced [30]. This
logical model reveals that the brain may be formally
embodied by 56 cognitive processes at seven layers and
two subsystems, known as the subconscious and conscious mental functions. The subconscious encompasses
the four lower-layer cognitive processes, for example, sensation, action, memory, and perception, that are equivalent
to the BOS. Consciousness includes cognition, inference,

(Cerebrum)

Sensory Receptors
Vision
Audition
Smell
Taste
Touch
Other
Stimuli

STM
(Working)
(Frontal Lobe)

and intelligence, the three higher-layer cognitive processes
equivalent to the recurrent brain applications (BApp) built
on the lower BOS layers.
According to LRMB, any human everyday life function
or intelligent behavior may be perceived as a temporary
composition of runtime instances by invoking the 56 cognitive processes across the seven layers. Therefore, the
nature of intelligence may be rigorously reduced to other
cognitive objects, i.e., data, information, knowledge, and
wisdom acquired or generated in the brain [25].
A computational intelligence model (CIM) of the brain
that simulates LRMB encompasses the processer, memory,
consciousness monitor, sensory, and motor driver subsystems. Figure 3 illustrates and highlights these subsystems
using different color schemes: the intelligent processor
subsystem is indicated by blue links, memories in red, and
other categories in green.
The CIM system model of the brain explains its key
organs and their cognitive functions that are allocated in
various regions of the brain, particularly the lobes and cortexes of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Systematic mapping
between the logical (functional) and neurophysiological
(structural) models of the brain is elaborated based on the

LTM
(Visual)
(Occipital Lobe)

LTM
(Knowledge)
(Temporal Lobe)

LTM
(Experience/Episode)
(Parietal Lobe)

Attention Switch (Hippocampus)

Behaviors
Eyes

B-CPU
Cranial
Receptors

Sensory
Pathway
(CNS/
PNS)

Perception Engine
(Thalamus)

MUX
(Pons)

Conscious Engine
(Hypothalamus)

Somatic
Receptors

DEMUX
(Pons)

Action
Drive

Muscle
Servos

(CNS/
PNS)

(Motor
Neurons)

Face
Arms
Legs
...
Others

SBM
CSM
ABM
Reflexive
(Sensory
Cortex)
(Cerebellum)
(Motor
Cortex)
Actions

Primary Motor Area

Cingulate
Gyrus

Thalamus

Survival Behaviors
(Spinal Cord)

Frontal Lobe

Primary Sensor Areas
Somatosensory
Area
Parietal Lobe

Fornix

Hippocampus
Amygdala

Septum
Septal
Nucleus
Hypothalamus
Olfactory Bulb
Pituitary Gland
Mammilary Body

Occipital
Lobe
Visual
Area
Temporal Lobe

Auditory
Area

Figure 3. The computational intelligence model: mapping between the logical model of the brain and its

neurological structures.

Ja nu a r y 2020

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE

9



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - January 2020

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