IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2020 - 46

The adoption of sensing systems at a global level is clearly going to be determined by cost, infrastructure requirements, and clinical effectiveness. Early considerations of
scalability and integration with current technologies are
essential, with the greatest clinical benefit often being in
areas with limited resources. At an institutional level, adoption frequently depends on synchronization with existing
systems and added value. As health-care systems move
their emphasis to out-of-hospital treatment, an important
market for sensing technologies will open. For individual
health-care providers, it is of paramount importance that
sensing output is presented in a widely understood manner
and leads to meaningful interventions without deviation
from routine clinical pathways. Implementations of novel
pathways must be supported by robust clinical evidence.
Instead of an incremental change in clinical practices,
it may be necessary to propose a radical process redesign
for perioperative care to address the challenges healthcare systems face [5]. Altering established processes is
challenging, with many obstacles, particularly regulatory
issues and the unwillingness to change. In the United
States, current health-care reforms link provider payment
not only with quantity but quality, effectiveness, and efficiency [16]. Sensing technologies can play a crucial role in
such outcome-focused health-care environments and the
evolution of the perioperative pathway. The road ahead,
although challenging, is bright. New technologies have
great potential to revolutionize health care and the way we
manage our wellbeing, thus affecting society, industry, and
the economy in ways we cannot yet fully comprehend.
Acknowledgment
This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical
Science Research Council through grant EP/L014149/1,
smart sensing for surgery.
About the Authors
Panagiotis Kassanos (p.kassanos@imperial.ac.uk) earned
his M.Eng. and Ph.D. degrees in electronic and electrical engineering from University College London (UCL) in 2006 and
2012, respectively. He is currently a research associate with
the Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery, Imperial College London. He is a Member of the IEEE.
Melissa Berthelot (m.berthelot14@imperial.ac.uk)
earned her diplôme d'ingénieur in embedded systems from
ECE Paris, France; her M.Sc. degree in advanced software
development from the University of Kent, United Kingdom;
and her M.Res. degree in medical robotics and image-guided intervention from Imperial College London. She continued
her studies at the Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery,
Imperial College London and, in 2019, earned her Ph.D.
degree for her work on wearable devices to continuously
monitor vascular parameters, with a strong emphasis on
clinical translation.
Jang Ah Kim (j.a.kim@imperial.ac.uk) earned her B.S.
degree in mechanical engineering from Sungkyunkwan Uni46	

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Ju ly 2020

versity, Suwon, Republic of Korea, in 2011 and her Ph.D.
degree in nanotechnology from the Advanced Institute of
Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, in 2017. Since
then, she has been a research associate at the Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery, Imperial College London.
Bruno M.G. Rosa (b.gil-rosa@imperial.ac.uk) earned
his M.Sc. degree in biomedical engineering and his Ph.D.
degree in electrical and computer engineering from the
Instituto Superior Tecnico, University of Lisbon, Portugal, in
2008 and 2014, respectively. Since 2015, he has worked as a
research associate at the Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery, Imperial College London, developing wearable and
implantable devices for physiological monitoring with
secure power and data-exchange links. He received the 2014
Altran Prize in Medical Innovation and IEEE Body Sensor
Networks Best Paper Award in 2019. He is a Member of the
IEEE and, since 2019, an associate member of the IEEE
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Wearable Biomedical Sensors and Systems Technical Committee.
Florent Seichepine (f.seichepine@imperial.ac.uk) earned
his B.Eng. degree in material science and his M.Sc. degree in
nanomaterials from the University of Toulouse, France, in
2008. He earned his Ph.D. degree in nanophysics in 2011 for
his work on carbon-nanotube interconnection while working
for the National Center for Scientific Research, Paris, France,
and Intel Ireland. He joined the Hamlyn Centre for Medical
Robotics, Imperial College London, in May 2016 as a research
associate and head of research facilities.
Salzitsa Anastasova (s.anastasova-ivanova@imperial
.ac.uk) earned her Ph.D. degree in 2008 from the Faculty of
Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sofia, Bulgaria. She has
been a senior Hamlyn fellow since 2017, and her research interests involve the development of biocompatible, biodegradable,
miniaturized, flexible wearable and implantable electrochemical and optical biosensors for reliable, continuous metabolite
monitoring and the development of smart materials using 3D
printing with two-photon polymerization. In 2019, she received
a demonstration and paper award at the IEEE International
Conference on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks. She is an Associate Member of the IEEE.
Mikael H. Sodergren (m.sodergren@imperial.ac.uk)
is an honorary senior clinical lecturer at Imperial College
London and a consultant hepatobiliary and pancreatic
surgeon at the Imperial College Healthcare National
Health Service Trust. His clinical interests include complex pancreas, liver, and gallbladder cancer surgery as
well as laparoscopic and robotic approaches. He was part
of the team that pioneered and performed the first cases
of natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery in the
United Kingdom.
Daniel Richard Leff (d.leff@imperial.ac.uk) earned his
M.Surg. degree in oncoplastic breast surgery from the University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom, in 2015 and
his Ph.D. degree in surgery from Imperial College London in
2009. He is a reader in breast surgery in the Departments of
Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, Hamlyn Centre for



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2020

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