IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2020 - 51

efforts contribute to make translation
of these emerging technologies more
expeditious. Then, Emil Hewage (cofounder and chief executive officer,
BIOS Health Ltd.), presented an example of an industry-led initiative on
the specification and characterization
and neural interfaces. Specifically,
they are working on open source hardware and software standards for the
human nervous system.
Finally, Konstantinos K
- arachalios
(IEEE Standards Association) d i s cussed topics on responsible innovation and standardization in autonomous and intelligent systems.
In particular, he presented IEEE
efforts toward human-centric artificial intelligence through the IEEE
Global Initiative on Ethics of Autonomous and Intelligent Systems
( ht t ps://et h icsi naction.ieee.org),
including the IEEE Guidelines for
Ethically-Aligned Design, and the

corresponding P7000 series of standardization projects.
These presentations and following
discussions reflected the importance
of standards as a tool for the better
development of neural technologies,
not only on technical aspects but also
on the implications of the interaction
between human and intelligent systems. Furthermore, as these systems
become increasingly complex and
their designs rely on efficient interactions between different stakeholders,
proper and timely standardization
can significantly contribute to the
generation of suitable solutions that
effectively help the improvement of
society. The outcome of these discussions and subsequent work of the Industry Connections group led to the
publication in February 2020 of the
IEEE Standards Roadmap: Neurotechnologies for Brain-Machine
Interface (https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/

document/9007002). This document
provides an overview of the existing
and developing standards in the field
and presents recommendations on the
current priorities for standardization.
About the Author
Ricardo Chavarriaga (r_chavarria
ga@ieee.org) earned his B.Sc. degree
from Pontificia Universidad Javeriana,
Bogotá, Colombia, in 1998 and his Ph.D.
degree from the Ecole polytechnique
fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland, in
2005. He is the head of the Swiss office
of the Confederation of Laboratories
for AI Research in Europe, a senior
researcher at the Zürich University of
Applied Sciences, and an associate fellow at the Geneva Center for Security
Policy. He is also the chair of the IEEE
Standards Association industry connection group on Neurotechnologies for
Brain-Machine Interfacing. He is a
Senior Member of the IEEE.

by Joel Libove

M

icrowave imagers, using
either pulses or continuous waves, show promise for imaging brain structure as
well as vascular and functional
activity and could form the basis
for enhanced brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). Exposing the patient
or subject to power levels typically
below 100 mW, microwave imaging is potentially safer, far smaller,
and less expensive than functional
magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Microwaves also have the potential to image neural and vascular
activity in deeper tissues than can
be accessed with functional nearinfrared spectroscopy.
Figure 1 illustrates the basic architecture of one such imager, which
uses an array of transmit/receive (Tx/
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MSMC.2020.2995463
Date of current version: 15 July 2020

IEEE P2725.1 Working
Group: Standard
for Microwave
Structural, Vascular,
or Functional Medical
Imaging Device Safety
Rx) elements, each capable of sending an electromagnetic wave into the
body and receiving 1) reflections of its
own signal from internal structures
and 2) signals transmitted from other Tx/Rx elements that have passed
through internal tissues. The P2725.1
standard will specify the electromagnetic, electrical and mechanical safe	

Ju ly 2020

ty, and electromagnetic compatibility
requirements for both clinical medical
imaging and fully-wearable consumer
BMI devices.
Kickoff Meeting
The Working Group (WG) kickoff
meeting was held on 8 October 2018
at the IEEE International Conference

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE	

51


https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9007002 https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9007002

IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - July 2020

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