IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 20

UGVs with Vive trackers. Custom 3D-printed mounts
were developed for the Vive trackers to elevate the sensors to maximize their 270° FOV sensing area and to
reduce vibrations.
An overview of the software flow used in the system
is shown in Figure 11, indicating how an IR laser sweep
and sync pulses from a single lighthouse are intercepted
and processed by multiple trackers. In this case, we set
up the Vive trackers to be connected with an ODROID
XU4 microcomputer on each Kobuki used as a UGV for
formation control. Each microcomputer computes the
position for itself onboard and hence does not rely on
communication, except for relaying goal coordinates to
follow the formation control algorithm.
Controller
Each of the follower UGVs can calculate its position relative to the leader UGV using VIVEPOSE since the leader
UGV has a lighthouse. The follower UGVs are then given

a desired relative position, [x d, y d], in relation to the
leader UGV. Using two PID controllers, the follower
UGVs attempt to stay at their desired positions. For reference, the discrete derivative in the PID equations is
given by Te (k) in
Te (k) = 6e (k) - e (k - 1)@ /T.

(2)

The first PID controller, seen in (3), is used to control
the linear velocity of the UGV, where K pl, K il, and K dl are
the PID control parameters, e l is the Euclidean distance
between the UGV's actual and desired positions, and T is
the time-step length:
z(k) = K pl e l (k) + K il | e l (k) T + K dl Te l (k).

(3)

The second PID controller, as seen in (4), is used to control the UGV's angular velocity, where K pa, K ia, and K da
are the PID control parameters and e a is the difference

2.5
2

IR Laser
Vive
and Sync
Lighthouse Pulses

Y Pose (m)

1.5

USB

1
0.5

Sensor Time
Intercepts

0

Angle
Computation

-0.5
Vive Pose
Odom Pose

-1
-1.5

Vive Tracker

-0.5

0

0.5
X Pose (m)

Pose
Computation
Using Solvers,
Like PnP

1

Sensor Fusion
Using EKF for
IMU Data

Figure 9. The positional estimates from the odometry

sensors and Vive tracker for UGV driving in a square
using a PID controller that utilizes the positions
estimated by the Vive tracker as its input [31].

ROS Interface
to Publish
the Pose
Controller
Using Pose
Data to Perform
Navigation
Odroid XU4

Kobuki Driver
UGV
Figure 10. The formation of UGVs using VIVEPOSE for

relative positioning.

20

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE O ctober 2020

Figure 11. The program flow of UGVs using the Vive

tracker for localization.



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020

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