IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 29

data, an effective "z." The final two dimensions represent
the location in the local tangent frame.
It should be noted that the point map solution is not
valid for navigation involving multiple points that differ
greatly about the "real" z-axis. For instance, when on a
roof with a given xy pair, the user device may have a
clear path to the AP with an interchannel RSSI flicker of
less than ±1.5 dB. However, the same xy pair inside of a
dwelling may experience attenuation, multipath, and
RSSI flicker, thus making the measurement for the same
(x, y) point greatly different. For this solution to be valid,
the mapping solution would need to be layered, effectively tra nsfor ming the map into 0 7 . With specialty

antennas and additional hardware, such an implementation may be feasible.
It is important to note that point maps utilize signals
of opportunity. Additional fidelity can be achieved if
something is known about the radiation characteristics
of the AP. One way to achieve this is to place the AP on
the rescue apparatus. Although this approach was not
field tested, the model agrees with the simulated data.
One advantage of full system knowledge is having the
ability to generate a model based off of the RSSI's pattern and power and a known location. The in situ model
could be compared against the ideal model to find
regions of difference, thus identifying locations where

C

C

B

D

-90 dBm

E51

R10

R10
E53

RSSI

POV

D

POV

B

E53

A
(a)

A
(b)

C

C

-90 dBm

E59

-20 dBm

D

E51

R10

-90 dBm

B

POV

E59
R10
E53

RSSI

E53

A
(c)

RSSI

E51

-20 dBm

D

POV

B

-20 dBm

E59

-20 dBm

E59

C

RSSI

-90 dBm

E51

A
(d)

Figure 6. With an inspection of the four BSSID models overlaid on the scene, one can track general trends for

the RSSI. For instance, the position of the wireless AP can be inferred. In BSSID-1, it would appear that the AP is
on the other side of E-59. The model for BSSID-2 suggests that the AP is not located on the property. BSSID-3's
model likely originates from E-51, and BSSID-4 likely has an origin in E-59. It should be noted that the models
do not contain data outside of the convex hull that makes up the models. Any inference outside can be done
by a vector-tracing technique, but it will not provide an exact location, as the vectors diverge. (a) A model for
BSSID-1, (b) BSSID-2, (c) BSSID-3, and (d) BSSID-4.

O c tob e r 2020

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE

29



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020

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