IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 32

possible once the models around
of ±1.5 dB. This can be confirmed
the area of interest have been
by summing the six different modHigher sample rates
established. In the trial run, a 2-Hz
els together (see Figure 9).
loop was utilized for positioning
Note that in this particular
are possible once the
after model generation.
case, there is not a single point that
models around the
By inspection of two frames in
yields a zero value. Instead, the
area of interest have
postprocess, one can see the
result is a band of convergence.
results from the RSSI positioning
This suggests that the model does
been established.
with the GPS truth. The postpronot perfectly fit the measurement.
cess data has two frames of interThe point that best describes the
est. The left frame contains the
predicted location is the point
four RSSI models with the error-bound RSSI measurenearest to zero, depicted in red, -1.67 dB. A perfect match
ment in the frame. The lower six frames above the
for RSSI versus location would be represented by a value
diagonal show the overlap between the models. The
of 0 dB.
lower two frames at left show the flattened GPS coordinate in X,Y bands. The figure at right depicts the
Experimental Results
aggregation of the models. The grid was set as a 1/2-m
Experimental trials of the method were conducted on a
per pixel spatial resolution.
single family dwelling. A small single-board computer
If all four models do not produce a point of overlap, the
equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU), GPS,
underlying algorithm does not update the predicted point.
and Wi-Fi streamed the data to a processing machine.
Figure 10 depicts the result of the RSSI models and the
This allowed for the comparison of the INS and GNSS navRSSI position solution at t = 0 s. One can tell by inspection
igation solution. The RSSI point map, model generation,
model validity check, and RSSI positioning were done
that the predicted point based off of the RSSI is fewer
postprocess. To synchronize ground truth with every
than 1 m from the GPS ground truth.
RSSI measurement during point map and model generaFigure 11 depicts the same information with t = 1.5 s.
tion, the sample rate is 1 Hz. Higher sample rates are
Note that the current RSSI measurements yields a larger

Frame Number 4 of 455, t = 1.5

10

50

20
100

Possible
Locations

30
150

40
50

200

60

250

70
300
80
350

90
100

400
50

100

(a)

150

200

10

20

30
(b)

40

50

Figure 11. Data frame 4, depicting (a) the model's convergence bands and (b) the RSSI position solution with

GPS ground truth. Note that the solution is a band of possible locations.

32

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE O ctober 2020



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020

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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - Contents
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