IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 38

Placing Sensors in a Process-Aware Way
To collect all relevant data, sensors need to be carefully
placed. It is already a challenge to construct sensors and
locate them on agents (human and artificial) and in smart
environments in such a manner that they are nonintrusive
and remain efficient. Sensors can be batteryless tags, such
as radio-frequency identification tags; powered by batteries,
renewable energy, and outlets; and communicate through
wired and wireless methods. It is even more challenging to
decide on the type of sensor and its placement with regard to
its function in respect to the interaction between agents. A
(model of a) business process may guide this determination
since it offers knowledge about resources, locations, and
variants of behavior (enactment) that need to be covered. As
well, the tradeoff between the cost of introducing additional
sensing points and the expected increase in monitoring
accuracy may be approached based on process knowledge.
Support for Managing Manually
Executed Physical Processes
In many scenarios, processes are automated through a
BPM system (BPMS), in which some activities require the
interplay between human operators and software/hardware modules; in many of these instances, there is an
increasing use of mobile devices that foster the delivery of
work items to the right users [7]. Workers do not necessarily have to interact with the BPMS while carrying out physical tasks (e.g., moving boxes in a warehouse); sensors,
which are connected to the BPMS, monitor whether or not
such a chore has started or ended. However, appropriate
mappings from process activities to the user interface and
usable visualizations are needed to enable actors (process
participants) to perform their work in a natural way, without requiring nonvalue-adding management duties, such as
clicking on confirmation buttons.
Connection of Analytical Processes With the IoT
During process execution, a variety of information is
required to make meaningful decisions. In turn, this information often needs to be available from traditional databases/data warehouses of historical data, and it must also
be current. It needs to be clear where data come from and
where they have been used (data provenance), and overall
quality requirements for the information must be ensured.
It becomes necessary to find a way to annotate the origin
of data and use this (meta)information in process models.
So far, there is no widely accepted approach to connect the
analytic processes of observation, analysis, and decision
making to business processes in a standardized way;
recent attempts include the decision model and notation
standard. Its focus, however, is on decision requirements
and less on the origin and use of decision data. Hence, a
technique is still needed to model data quality and provenance so that information can be exploitable at the process model level. Erroneous sensors, which do not work at
all or deliver erroneous data, must be discovered and
38

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE O ctober 2020

excluded from any analysis. In turn, a reasonable judgment
about which sensor data might be erroneous is required.
The process context in which these data occur might be
helpful to identify and cope with erroneous sensors.
Integrating the IoT With Process
Correctness Checks
Well-known techniques for analyzing process models can
contribute to improve the design of interactions in the IoT
by finding deadlocks, livelocks, and dead activities in
interactions between smart objects. Deadlocks and
livelocks are reasons why some processes may not terminate in the assumed time frame or at all. While a rollback
is a typical service in data management, it becomes much
costlier and more complicated when managing processes
and thus should be avoided. Dead activities do not harm
processes execution (unless they are supposed to be mandatory) since they will never be triggered. Yet, they represent a waste of resources, as physical and virtual elements
may have been reserved for these activities. Therefore,
designing correct process models that specifically consider the IoT nature of some components becomes crucial, as
does the verification of important properties.
Dealing With Unstructured Environments
BPM offers a way to structure businesses. Thus, it often
assumes a controlled environment with a managed repository of versioned processes that can be orchestrated for
the purpose of a single enterprise and be choreographed
between parties in cases of cross-organizational collaborations. Orchestration denominates the execution order
of the interactions from the perspective, and under
the control, of a single party, whereas choreography
describes public, i.e., globally visible, message exchanges, interaction rules, and agreements made among multiple entities. Both concepts presume knowledge about the
structure and interactions of each participating process.
It is questionable whether orchestration and choreography still suffice as organizational concepts in an IoT
world, which is much more ad hoc and situational (e.g.,
devices involved in the interaction might fail and deliver
erroneous data, new devices may have to be added flexibly, and so forth).
Managing the Links Between Microprocesses
One approach to bridge the gap between IoT data and processes would be to break end-to-end models into microprocesses that represent habits and arrange them in a less
prescriptive (control flow) way. Modeling a small and possibly autonomous microprocess does not necessarily
require new modeling constructs and methods. Yet, the
organization of hundreds or thousands of loosely coupled
small processes may require new modeling constructs and
methods to structure and represent nonhierarchical interactions in a human-readable form. Data-centric process
paradigms offer promising perspectives in this context [8].



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020

Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - Contents
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 2
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 3
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 4
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 5
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 6
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 7
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 8
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 9
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 10
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 11
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 12
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 13
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 14
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 15
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 16
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 17
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 18
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 19
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 20
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 21
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 22
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 23
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 24
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 25
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 26
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 27
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 28
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 29
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 30
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 31
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 32
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 33
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 34
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 35
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 36
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 37
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 38
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 39
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 40
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 41
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 42
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 43
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 44
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 45
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 46
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 47
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 48
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 49
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 50
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 51
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 52
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 53
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 54
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 55
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 56
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 57
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 58
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 59
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 60
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 61
IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2020 - 62
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0717
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0117
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0716
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0116
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0715
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0115
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com