IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2021 - 32

3)	 Small classrooms: The average occupancy of small
classrooms does not exceed five persons per room.
Compared with their current power consumption under
no scheduling, if one of the three evolutionary algorithms is employed, the power consumption of small
classrooms can be saved by more than 9.9, 75.2, and
65.0%, when the corresponding numbers of occupants
are 100, 200, and 300, respectively.
For the aforementioned three cases, all of the simulation
results indicate that, when the number of occupants increases, ICS+LSTM-RNN has the best performance.

1 n
(} a - }r ) 2 , (31)
n|
a=1

SD =

	

where n denotes the number of experiments, } a de-notes
the consumption of electric energy of each experiment, and }r denotes average electric energy consumption in n experiments. The results are displayed
in Table 2.
Among the three evolutionary algorithms to schedule
the powering on/off of the classrooms, the experimental
results show that ICS is more stable and gives a solution
leading to the least power compared with other methods
in most situations. When LSTM-RNN is added to assist in
the scheduling decision, the corresponding power
consumption is reduced further than ICS in the case of
an increasing number of occupants.

Evaluation
We introduce standard deviation (SD) as a criterion to evaluate the stability of the results. The smaller the SD, the more
stable the result; otherwise, the result is unstable.

Large Classrooms

500

1,000

1,500

1,000
330.45

632.5

800
600

198.88

400

114.47

329.73
196.98

198.04

113.75

200

331

328.8
195.92
1,500

113.83

114.38

1,000
500

N

S

C

IC

S

N

+

o

LS

Sc

he

TM

-R

N

IC

du

PS

lin

AB

O

0

Number of Occupants

1,200

g

Power Consumption (kWh)

1,012
1,012

Figure 13. The power consumption under different occupancy levels in large classrooms (5 h).

Small Classrooms

250

92

169.8

200

91.61

65.23

150
100

33.99

91.81
63.14

65.09

34.13

200

300
91.49

61.61

34.19

300

34.19

200

50
100

N
N

S

TM
-R

IC

C
AB

PS

+
S
IC

N

o

LS

Sc

he

du
lin

O

0

Figure 14. The power consumption under different occupancy levels in small classrooms (5 h).
32	

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Apri l 2021

Number of Occupants

100

300

g

Power Consumption (kWh)

263.19
263.19



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2021

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