IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2021 - 50

control. Simulations indicate that hierarchical control is
an efficient strategy during CDDs.
Water Networks
Water networks are critical infrastructures, due to the
vital role water plays. Modern countries employ SCADA in
water networks to equip the systems with wireless communication, sensing, and control to minimize water losses
[58]. However, CPSs involving water networks are at risk of
cyberattacks [41], [198], [199]. For example, the underlying
motivation of a terrorist attack on a water network may be
different from that of a farmer who wishes to steal water
without paying for it [58].

Table 4. The performance (%) of different
detectors, using various measures [201].
Detector

Precision

Recall

Accuracy

Time

SVM (linear)

59.04

62.71

66.19

0.72

SVM (RBP)

43.19

50.14

51.54

0.75

FNN

49.08

64.68

57.14

0.89

CNN

74.2

71.2

77.6

0.91

ACNN

75.14

74.72

79.08

0.95

TDL-CNN

84.45

78.77

85.04

1.36

ATDL-CNN

85.41

84.92

87.62

1.36

Measurement Data

Attack Detection Unit
Via Residual Generations

No
Residual > Threshold
Yes
Attack Isolation Unit
Using SVM Classifier Via
Decision Tree Strategy

Attack Type Is Isolated
Figure 13. An attack detection and isolation method

for an industrial steam turbine [205].

50	

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Apri l 2021

In [58], secure control of the Gignac water network is
investigated. The system includes two pools that are
supervised by SCADA and where a stealthy deception
attack is launched. A proportional-integral controller and
a UIO are developed to identify the strike. Several tests are
performed, and the results indicate that the detection system is not robust enough to isolate breaches downstream
from the canal pool. A model-based cyberattack detection
method is introduced in [200] to isolate deception attacks
on automated water canal systems. It consists of a bank of
UIOs, which is developed for a linear delay differential system. Observers are designed using a delay-dependent LMI
method to be insensitive to one attack mode and sensitive
to others. The authors prove that the method is sufficient
to detect deception attacks if an accurate water model is
available. Furthermore, it is shown that installing multiple
sensors in a water network can be an effective cyberdefense strategy.
A data-driven cyberattack detection strategy is introduced in [201] for critical water systems. It utilizes deep
learning and multimodal data fusion techniques and
develops an adaptive tapped delay line (ATDL) CNN to
detect various attacks. Several experiments are conducted using the European Union Horizon 2020 Strategic,
Tactical, and Operational Protection of Water Infrastructure Against Cyberphysical Threats project data
set. The detector's performance is compared with various other approaches, such as SVMs, feed-forward NNs
(FNNs), CNNs, and adaptive CNNs (ACNNs). Table 4
summarizes the performance of detectors that employ
various measures: precision, recall, accuracy, and execution time. It shows that the proposed ATDL-CNN has
the best performance, with precision, recall, and accuracy results of 85.41, 84.92, and 87.62%, respectively. The
execution time of the proposed ATDL CNN is 1.36 s/100
frames, which is slightly higher than that of the CNN
method, at 0.95 s/100 frames.
Process Control Systems
Process control systems are generally employed in chemical, petrochemical, and allied process industries. For
example, chemical reactors' output temperatures are regulated for specific products, and liquid levels are adjusted
to track predefined set points [202]. Large process systems are controlled by SCADA and thus are at risk of
cyberattacks [203]. In [32], a computational geometric
approach and least-squares approximation method are
employed to isolate cyberattacks in CPSs by utilizing a
convex hulls intersection methodology [204]. It is implemented on a four-tank process model that is highly nonlinear and that has coupling and time delay in its dynamics.
Simulations indicate that the approach successfully identifies cyberattacks. A secure estimation method is introduced in [205] to isolate attacks on an industrial steam
turbine. The turbine has a complex structure, including
high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure



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