IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2021 - 51

units. A two-step detection strategy is developed using
for cyberattacks because they use sensor information from
multisensor information to detect and identify attack
communication channels [208]-[212]. Although wireless
communication and connectivity in automated vehicles
types. Figure 13 details the proposed algorithm [205]. An
attack is detected using a residual generation method via
offers many benefits, such as reducing traffic volumes and
pollution, it also increases cybersecurity risks. Automated
an NN. The attack type is then isolated based on a decivehicles are required to harness sensor data from other
sion tree algorithm via an SVM classifier with the detected residuals and multisensor data. Simulations indicate
cars, which makes them vulnerable to malicious activities.
In such an environment, cyberattacks are launched to dishigh accuracy compared to attack detection schemes that
able them [213], [214].
do not have multisensor information.
An Oracle estimator is introduced in [215] for attack
Mo et al. [66] investigate a replay attack on a Tennessee
detection in vehicles with several sensors. It recursively
Eastman Process control system. The authors combine a
estimates states and measures residuals-the difference
KF estimation method and an LQG controller with a zerobetween updated states and measurements from each senmean Gaussian authentication signal added to the controlsor. The proposed estimator considers all the sensors to
ler. They optimize the LQG method with the authentication
update the system state. A sensor that is under attack prosignal. Then, an |2 detector is utilized to isolate attacks.
duces a large residual. Therefore, it will be weighted so
The methodologies improve the detection rate in comparithat it has less impact on estimating the desired state.
son with the classical |2 detector without an authenticaExtra sensors, contributing to the creation of measuretion signal. A KF-based secure control strategy is developed
ment redundancy, are required. A multisensor attack-resilin [202] to mitigate sensor attacks in three-tank process sysient approach is proposed in [216] for a radar tracking
tems. It estimates states by using measurements. A feedsystem; Figure 15 describes it. The resilient attack system
back controller is applied to mitigate attacks via a
utilizes position, velocity, and acceleration sensors and
compensation signal. Compensation is accomplished so as
constructs a resilient controller using an attack detection
to tolerate attacks and improve false alarm rates.
and isolation (ADI) subsystem and a resilient observer
An observer-based fusion method is introduced in [206]
(RO) subsystem. The ADI subsystem identifies the type
for isolating data injection attacks in a cycle power plant
and location of an attack by using a bank of KFs and the
with several desalination units. A time delay state model
residual monitoring concept. The RO subsystem employs
of the plant is obtained, an observer-based filter is de--
an ordered weighted averaging operator to combine KF
signed using measurements from multiple sensors, and
estimates to provide resilient observation using the ADI
the stability of the overall system is proved through a
subsystem's information.
Lyapunov-based approach. Several data injection attacks
Chen et al. [217] investigate various attack strategies to
are performed in various parts of the plant, including a
steer vehicle to targets without being detected. A cost funcsteam turbine, a condenser, desalinated water, and a heat
tion is calculated based on an attack objective using a sum
recovery steam generator unit. The observer-based filter
of components, defined as a distance between a vehicle
detects attack parameters, and its performance is comand a target. It is optimized by dynamic programming to
pared to a UKF method, indicating that it responds faster.
A zoning-based cybersecure attack detection technique is proposed in [207] to isolate attacks in coupled tank control
Security System
systems, as shown in Figure 14 [207]. ProField Bus
cess controllability and observability are
Controller 1
Controller 2
Controller 3
investigated, and the process is divided
into three zones. Actuator attacks are
detected through a KF-based method. MulMagnetic Valve
tiple models are generated by using the
V1
Tank 1
zones, and a resilient strategy employing a
Manual Valve
L1
switching controller is developed to comSafety Valve
pensate for the actuator attack impact.
V2
Level Sensor
Tank 2
Simulations show a satisfactory recovery
L2
Gas Glass
response. The method can be implemented
V3
Flange
for various types of attacks, as the design
does not depend on attack types.
Pump

Automated Vehicles
Automated vehicles, such as UGVs, un--
manned surface vehicles, and unmanned
underwater vehicles, are attractive targets

Tank 3

Figure 14. A tank coupling control system [207].

	

Ap ri l 2021

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE	

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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2021

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