IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2021 - 52

Cybersecure Control System
RO Subsystem

ADI Subsystem

Attacker

Untrusted

Position
KF 1

Position Sensor

Residual 1

Position
OWA 1

Velocity
Acceleration

Attacker
Position
KF 2

Position Sensor

Untrusted

Velocity

Velocity
OWA 2

Residual 2
Acceleration
Attacker
Position
Acceleration
Position Sensor

Velocity

KF 3

OWA 3
Acceleration
Residual 3

Untrusted

Figure 15. A multisensor fusion method for a radar tracking system [216]. ADI: attack detection and isolation;

RO: resilient observer; OWA: ordered weighted averaging.

determine an ideal attack sequence, which is proved to be
SE linear feedback. Numerical tests on a remotely operated
helicopter under attack indicate a tradeoff between attack
detection and control performance. Zhu and Martınez [218]
introduce a distributed control framework for vehicles that
are being attacked by hackers. The distributed resilient
controller has two components: an online learning unit and
a control unit. The online learning unit adaptively collects
new information and estimates malicious activities
through continuous contact with the physical system. The
control unit produces a control law by optimizing local cost
functions. The method guarantees the asymptotical stability of the system.
aq (k )

Encoder

ye (k )

a

ye (k )

Decoder

"

yq (k )

A coding-decoding detection approach is introduced in
[219] for flight vehicles. An |2 detector is developed and
shown to be unable to guarantee system security. Then,
the impact of a false data injection attack is optimized,
subject to an attack being undetectable and having limited
energy. Finally, an encoder-decoder methodology is
designed for the |2 detector to detect such an attack. The
configuration appears in Figure 16. The detector is constructed to alert the attack subspace and assist in identifying attacks. A hybrid attack detection scheme is proposed
in [220] for isolating false data injection attacks and faults
in automated vehicles. A CNN-based approach is applied
to image data from multiple sensors to detect system
abnormalities. The CNN is integrated, via
an |2 detector, with a KF-based method
to enhance accuracy. Tests indicate that
the scheme performs better than the CNN
a
yd (k )
and |2 detectors.
Petrillo et al. [221] investigate cyberattacks against a group of autonomous connected vehicles (ACVs) moving as a
a
xd (k )
platoon. The authors examine four types
of attacks, including DoS, message falsification, spoofing, and burst transmission, and
a
design an adaptive controller to provide a
rd (k )
cybersecure condition. The controller's stability is guaranteed by Lyapunov-Krasovskii theory. Several simulations are

a

a

"

xd (k ) = (ΓTWΓ)-1ΓTW (yd (k ) - Huuq (k))
a

uq (k )

a

rd (k ) = Γ⊥ (yd (k ) - Huuq (k))

Figure 16. A coding-based detector [219].
52	

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Apri l 2021



IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2021

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