IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2021 - 63

The IEEE CRFID considers this
new technical development extremely
important for its technical fields of
interest and will continually make
major efforts in investigating and
facilitating its current and future activities. There are many research and
technical activities within the IEEE
SMCS related to the same field; therefore, the IEEE SMCS and CRFID will
form a joint task force to lead the coordination of technical activities and
organizations in artificial identification and federated ecology, including
the creation of a joint technical committee, as necessary. At this point, a
workshop on this topic is planned for
2021, and the final program will be announced before June of this year.
Blockchain and Knowledge
Automation
Traditionally, blockchain is considered only as a digital ledger used to
record an event, but its potentials
reach far beyond such a limited scope
[8]. One of its biggest applications
is the supply chain, a key application field for RFID technology. By
securely storing all of the information relevant to the management of
a given supply chain, blockchain
enables manufacturers, shippers, and
customers to collect important data,
analyze trends, assure authenticity,
perform monitoring, and respond to
inquiries. RFID can be used to identify and track tags attached to objects,
leading to more transparent, secure,
and automated flows. For example,
RFID and blockchain-based agrifood
supply chain and hazardous material cargo tracking systems, logistical
systems, and transportation systems
were demonstrated in China over the
past few years [9].
In recognition of the enabling changes of blockchain for human society,
under the leadership of a few IEEE
CRFID volunteers, including Fei-Yue
Wang, Yong Yuan, and Jason Zhang, a
blockchain technical committee has
been established in the IEEE SMCS
Systems Science and Engineering
Technical Activity. Both the IEEE
SMCS and CRFID served as found-

ing co-organizers of the International
IEEE/International Federation of
Automatic Control (IFAC) Conference on Blockchain and Knowledge
Automation (ICBKA) in 2017 and will
be technical cosponsors of the fifth
IEEE/IFAC ICBKA to be held in Qingdao, China, in November 2021. For
the next five years, the IEEE CRFID
and SMCS plan to work together to
promote and build up this conference
through collaboration with IFAC.
CPSS: From Karl Popper's
Philosophy to Intelligent Science
CPSS-also known as cyberphysical
human systems and human cyberphysical systems-originated from
Karl Popper's three worlds model and
was initially called cyber-social-physical systems [10], [11]. CPSS can be
considered as the extension of cyberphysical systems, which seamlessly
integrate cyber, social, and physical
spaces [12]. Physical sensors, such as
RFID readers, have been widely used
in traditional cyberphysical systems
for data collection. CPSS provides
the platform and architecture to
incorporate additional social sensors
(psychological/emotional/behavioral
data) and social networks in analysis
and applications [13]. CPSS is one
of the IEEE CRFID's major fields of
interest for technical activities and
organizational services [3].
The IEEE SMCS already has several relevant technical committees,
e.g., Cybernetics for Cyber-Physical
Systems, Cyber-Physical Cloud Systems, Social Computing, and Social
Intelligence. It has also started the
process of establishing a joint technical committee on CPSS with the IEEE
CRFID and CAA. The IEEE SMCS, together with CRFID, also served as a
technical cosponsor of the third IFAC/
IEEE Conference on Cyber-Physical
and Human Systems, hosted in Beijing, China, in December 2020. Due
to travel limitations, the conference
was held as a " distributed hybrid conference, " attracting 252 submissions,
more than 80 face-to-face onsite participants, and more than 8,000 online
viewers. Most importantly, the IEEE
	

Ap ri l 2021

SMCS launched IEEE Transactions
on Computational Social Systems
in 2014, focusing on topics such as
modeling, simulation, analysis, and the
understanding of social systems from
the quantitative and/or computational
perspective. The foundational expertise in the aforementioned topics offers
a solid basis for joint efforts between
the IEEE SMCS and CRFID for the
research, development, and applications of CPSS and computational social systems.
Digital Twins and
Parallel Intelligence
A digital twin, similar to a shadow
system, is a comprehensive software
representation of an individual physical object, including its properties,
conditions, and behaviors [14]-[16].
It uses digital models to simulate
the physical object's behavior in the
deployed environment and remains
as its virtual counterpart across the
physical object's entire lifecycle [16].
Existing applications of digital twins
include, for example, storing and
accessing product information using
RFID codes and human-machine
interaction, which is one of the three
focus areas of the IEEE SMCS. For
example, a digital twin prototype was
developed for human-robot interactive welding and welder behavior
analysis [17], which helps enhance
welders' productivity and comfort
and benefits novice welder training.
Digital twins are critical building
components for parallel intelligence
or parallel systems based on the ACP
methodology ( " A " for artificial systems, " C " for computational experiments, and " P " for parallel execution),
where artificial systems are mainly
constructed from digital twins (for
computer simulations with high precision), software twins (for softwaredefined large-scale systems), and
artificial twins (for sociotechnical
complex systems) [18]-[20]. Parallel
intelligence focuses on the interaction between the actual and artificial
worlds and is supported widely by
new intelligent technologies, such
as deep neural networks, the IoT,

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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2021

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