IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2021 - 22

of rays running into potentially ray-chaotic states in massive
MIMO, terahertz communications, or metasurfaces,
the dynamical systems are within reach.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported in part by a research grant from
Science Foundation Ireland and cofunded under the European
Regional Development Fund under grants 13/RC/2077
1.2
1.4
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
12345678
Prediction Window
(a)
A
and 13/RC/2077_P2 as well as the European Union's Horizon
2020 research and innovation program under Marie
Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement 713567.
About the Authors
Harun Siljak (harun.siljak@tcd.ie) earned his bachelor's
and master's degrees in electronics and control engineering
from the University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in
Sum Rates
Latency
Computation
B
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 5. The direct improvements of communication quality based on better dynamical system prediction. (a)
The sum rate, computational burden, and latency improvements. The sum rates increase more than 20%, latency
drops by 20%, and computation burden (directly related to the power consumption reduction and minimization
of hardware) drops by 90% in scenarios observed by increasing the prediction horizon from one unit interval,
at which prediction is currently possible (one Lyapunov time), to eight unit intervals. The conversion of the
prediction time gain into gain in other metrics was performed in straightforward manner. (b) The colocated
massive MIMO scenario for sum rate analysis. The sum rates in a fast-changing system with many users in a cell
depend on up-to-date CSI for a large number of users. (Our scenario is a colocated massive MIMO base station
with users in motion). Modeling the effect of CSI acquisition at the beginning of each coherence interval on
the sum rates and the gradual deterioration of the CSI relevance over increasingly larger intervals leads to the
expected result of a sum rate increase by the virtue of the less frequent need for corrections via CSI acquisition.
(c) The distributed massive MIMO scenario for computation analysis. Distributed massive MIMO with antenna
selection also relies heavily on constant CSI updates for a large number of users. Employing the power of
prediction increase from one to eight coherence intervals and, at the same time, allowing the vast network
of transmitters and receivers to take a continuous form in its limit, we trade the burden of CSI acquisition and
consequent optimization for that of dynamical system prediction, which reduces the total computation. (d)
The multihop scenario for latency analysis. We observe the time needed to deliver a message in a multihop
system (somewhat similar to the dynamics of epidemic spread, a famous dynamical system) as a measure of
latency. The message is transferred from the initial point (A) with the goal of reaching the fixed destination (B)
via relays, which move on a walk assumed predictable by the reservoir computer. Before handing the message
from one relay to another, it is checked whether the new carrier will come closer to the destination than the
original carrier within the prediction horizon. CSI: channel state information.
22 IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE October 2021
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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2021

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