IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2021 - 29

Results
Figure 5 presents the t-SNE result, which can help to
inspect the clustering attribute of all the heatmaps. It is
manifest that each class displays certain region preferences,
while at the same time being spread over the
entire plane. However, no class obviously dominates
any specific region that clearly separates itself from
other classes. To some extent, this indicates that the
network might work on some common parts of the EEG
topographies to distinguish the workload. These coherent
parts of EEG topographies, in turn, indicate the
activation of the corresponding brain regions. Figure 5
indicates that for each class, the network will not focus
differently, at least apparently, which is optimistically
supporting our conjecture. In addition, in Figure 5, the
clustering of class 2 is a little bit different from the
other classes. An explanation could be articulated as
follows. For class 1, the cognition required to process
the workload might be too simple to be distinguishable
from the instinct; for class 4, the workload could be too
high and complicated, which requires sophisticated
cognitive functions to be involved. Class 2, which represents
an appropriate workload, is probably suitable for
arousing the cognition of working memory; this might
explain its distinctiveness.
To further investigate the involved brain region,
several heatmaps from different locations in Figure 5
are displayed in Figure 6. It is interesting to note that
from these heatmaps, the PFC gets highly focused in
nearly all the cases, although the activations might be
to varying degrees. However, the result is sufficient
enough to demonstrate accordance with the
100
80
60
40
20
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 020406080 100
Figure 5. The heatmap distribution under different
workloads via t-SNE.
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Figure 6. The heatmaps from different locations of the t-SNE distribution.
October 2021 IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE 29

IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - October 2021

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