IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2023 - 19

sizing of solar photovoltaics (PVs),
wind turbine (WT), LIB, and SC is
evaluated based on cost of energy
(CoE) and net present cost (NPC),
and all feasible configurations are
discussed. The feasible configurations
include PV+LIB, PV+WT+LIB,
WT+LB, PV+WT+SC, PV+SC, and
WT+SC and are compared in terms
of CoE and NPC. The results show
that the PV+LIB architecture is the
optimum configuration, with a CoE
of $0.2/kWh and an NPC of $7,334.
Electricity is a crucial
aspect to take into
account for a healthy
human life, the
advancement
of science, and
the development of
the country.
Introduction
Electricity is a crucial aspect to take into account for a
healthy human life, the advancement of science, and the
development of the country. For growing nations like
India to experience sustained economic progress, a
robust energy infrastructure is always a necessary element.
The demand for electrical power has been rising
steadily, and the power sectors must add more generation
capacity to keep up. A decentralized network of
loads and energy production facilities situated within
predetermined electrical limits is referred to as an MG.
They can operate inside the framework of the wide-area
grid network or independently without outside interference,
in what is known as island mode. Based on how
they operate, MGs can be divided into two primary categories:
ac MGs (ACMGs) and DCMGs. A DCMG has three
main advantages, including sustainability, reliability, and
integration. In terms of sustainability, a DCMG has a
smaller environmental impact than
the ac power system. A DCMG en -
hances sustainability by giving the
electrical system more independence.
A DCMG can be installed
perfectly, with no synchronization
issues for providing reliable power
to buildings and facilities.
An effective, expandable, and
dependable method of electrifying
rural areas is the DCMG. The
best size and generation mix of
distributed energy resources
(DERs), as well as the kind of
MG, i.e., ac or dc, are determined
using the MG planning model [1]. A DCMG's control and
operation, which can be carried out in grid-connected or
island modes, are examined in [2] and [3], which present
a thorough analysis of hierarchical control techniques.
Different control methods, including centralized, decentralized,
distributed, multilevel, and hierarchical control,
are discussed to guarantee the secure and safe operation
of DCMGs. Coordination between operation and control
algorithms is necessary, since the best planning for
DCMG affects those algorithms [4]. Due to their great
efficiency and reliable performance, DCMGs are favored.
The DCMG is still a relatively new concept in terms of
grid architecture and control technologies, despite its
tremendous expansion. In this situation, an energy-management
system is necessary for the safe, dependable,
and intelligent use of DERs [5].
Operationally, the DCMG has drawn a lot of interest
since, in comparison to conventional ACMG systems, it
provides significant safety benefits, cost effectiveness,
energy efficiency, and stability [6]. To address the
demand-generation gap and dc bus voltage regulation,
a unique power-management strategy for power-sharing
between battery and SC energy storage systems
has been proposed and used [7]. The integration of
ACMG and DCMG, their security and dependability, the
optimization of power generation and load management
in various scenarios, the effective management of
uncertainty for renewable energy resources, the ideal
placement of feeders, and the cost-effective control
methodologies for the hybrid MG are discussed in [8].
An improved load- shar ing approach-based droopmanagement
method for parallel batteries operating in
a DCMG is presented in this research. The primary
goal of the suggested control strategy is to incorporate
the real battery capacity, which may be impacted during
its lifecycle, in the control algorithm to avoid nonmatching
conditions [9].
Rural electrification has been suggested using a DCMG
with DERs and storage in [10] and [11]. The authors proposed
and developed a DCMG powered by solar PVs for
Umuokpo Amumara. To assess the neighborhood's energy
April 2023 IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE 19
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IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2023

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