IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2023 - 23

```Simulation Results of Optimum
System Configuration
From Table 1, we conclude that the best system configuration
for the location of Aruppukottai in the southern region
of Tamil Nadu, India, is the PV+LIB architecture. In this
section, we discuss the simulation results
obtained by using Home Pro software for
this configuration.
Solar PV Output
Figure 5 shows the solar PV output variation
for the year. The rated capacity of
the solar PV panel is 6.4 kW. The mean
output power is 0.412 kW. The average
energy production per day is 9.88 kWh.
The estimated capacity factor is 6.43%.
The annual energy production from the
solar PV panel is 3,607 kWh. The total
hours of operation per year is 4,379 h.
Figure 6 shows the monthly average
energy production from solar PV panels.
The total energy demand per year is
2,834 kWh and, therefore, the excess
energy production is 641 kWh. The
unmet electrical load is estimated as
2.1 kWh/year.
LIB Output
Figure 7 shows the state of charge of LIB
for the year. In this architecture, 12 numbers
(three strings times four batteries) of
LIBs are used with a capacity of 12 kWh. But
the usable capacity is estimated as 9.6 kWh.
The dc bus voltage is 24 V. The autonomy
operating hours are 29.7 h. The annual
energy input to the battery is 1,342 kWh
and energy output from the battery is estimated
as 1,210 kWh/year. The storage depletion,
losses, and annual throughput are
calculated as 2.62 kWh/year, 134 kWh/year,
and 1,276 kWh/year, respectively.
Cost Summary
Table 2 shows the summary of cost for
the optimum system configuration. The
NPC value is calculated as US\$7,334,
which includes capital cost, replacement
cost, O&M cost, fuel cost, and salvage
value. About 61% of NPC is utilized for
storage systems and 37.5% is required for
solar PV panel, and the rest is used for the
MPPT controller.
Conclusion
stand-alone DCMG for the location of
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Aruppukottai, in the southern region of Tamil Nadu, India,
has been proposed by using Homer Pro software. In addition
to this, all feasible system configurations, such as
PV+LIB, PV+WT+LIB, WT+LB, PV+WT+SC, PV+SC, and
WT+SC are discussed. Based on the results obtained, the
Figure 5. Annual solar PV output.
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
PV
Figure 6. Monthly average energy productions from solar PV.
120
100
80
60
40
20
Figure 7. State of charge of LIB.
April 2023 IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE 23
LIB State of Charge (%)
kW
January 1
January 13
January 25
February 6
February 18
March 2
March 14
March 27
April 8
April 20
May 2
May 14
May 26
June 8
June 20
July 2
July 14
July 26
August 7
August 20
September 1
September 13
September 25
October 7
October 19
November 1
November 13
November 25
December 7
December 19
December 31
Generic Flat Plate PV Power Output (kW)
January 1
January 13
January 25
February 6
February 18
March 2
March 14
March 27
April 8
April 20
May 2
May 14
May 26
June 8
June 20
July 2
July 14
July 26
August 7
August 20
September 1
September 13
September 25
October 7
October 19
November 1
November 13
November 25
December 7
December 19
December 31
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
```

IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Magazine - April 2023

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