Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 15

History

by William B. Rouse

I

Looking Back
to the 1970s
and 1980s

was president of the IEEE Systems, Ma n, a nd Cyber netics
Society (SMCS) over three decades ago-for the two-year period
of 1982-1983. I had moved to Georgia Tech, just a year earlier, from
the University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign. I became a professor of
industrial and systems engineering
and the director of the Center for
met each spring at the Annual ConferMan-Machine Systems Research,
ence on Manual Control and each fall
which was later renamed the Cenat the International Conference on
ter for Human-Machine Systems
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics.
Research, a reflection of increased
My contemporaries included Gunsensitivity to gender bias as well as
nar Johansson and Azad Madni, who
other biases. Later, I'll comment on
were both Ph.D. students at the same
how SMCS faced this issue.
time as I was in the early 1970s. ElisI became active in SMCS in 1970
abeth Pate Cornell was also a conwhile a Ph.D. student at the Massatemporary, although
chusetts Institute of
I only got to know
Technology, working
her well later. Danny
with Tom Sheridan,
Gopher and Chris
who also served as the
Wickens became colpresident of SMCS but
leagues at Illinois in
I do not recall when.
the mid-1970s. I met
I r emem ber me et Ken Boff in the early
ing many people at
19 8 0 s , b e g i n n i n g
SMCS meetings who
more than 30 years of
I had only known by
collaboration. From
their writings, includthis period on, my
ing Harold Chestnut, William b. rouse
relationship network
K.S. Fu, Ron Howard,
flourished. By 2000, I noticed that
Andy Sage, John Warfield, and Lotfi
my relationship database included
Zadeh. I was surprised and encour5,000 people.
aged by how these senior people were
The early 1970s were an interestso approachable and supportive.
ing time to become involved in SMCS.
I was most closely affiliated with
The Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
the human-machine systems comGroup was formed in 1970 via the
munity within SMCS, including Shelly
merger of the IEEE Man-Machine
Baron, Russ Ferrell, Henry Jex, Dave
Systems Group (MMS) and the IEEE
Kleinman, Bill Levison, John Lyman,
Systems Science and Cybernetics
Duane McRuer, Neville Moray, Ray
Group (SSC). The Systems, Man, and
Nickerson, Dick Pew, Jens Rasmussen,
Cybernetics Group became the SMCS
Tom Sheridan, Larry Stark, Henk Stasin 1972. The flagship transactions of
sen, and Larry Young. This community
the MMS and the SSC were merged,
in 1971, into IEEE Transactions on
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, with
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MSMC.2015.2395654
Russ Ferrell and John Warfield as coDate of publication: 24 April 2015
Ja nu a r y 2015

editors. Andy Sage became the editor
in 1972 and continued until 1998.
The MMS was founded in 1958 as
the IRE Group on Human Factors in
Electronics. The SSC was founded in
1964. Note that the IEEE was formed
in 1963 with the merger of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers
(founded in 1894) and the Institute of
Radio Engineers (founded in 1912).
The merger created an odd set of
bedfellows. There seemed to be three
loci. One was human-machine systems, where considerable emphasis
was placed on the empirical validation of mathematical models of human operators and maintainers. A
second area was systems science and
engineering, where engineering methodologies and decision support were
central and the scale of the issues addressed often precluded traditional
empirical investigations. The third
area was pattern recognition, later
termed pattern analysis and machine
intelligence. This area seemed purely
mathematical and computational, seldom involving humans other than as
sources of medical images.
I could appreciate the intersection
of the first two areas. The first focused on operators and maintainers
of engineered systems, while the second addressed the design, development, deployment, and sustainment
of engineered systems. There was a
natural alliance, although it was only
occasionally pursued. It was more
difficult to relate to the third area,

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE

15



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - Cover1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - Cover2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 4
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 5
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 6
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 7
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 8
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 9
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 10
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 15
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 18
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 19
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 20
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 21
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 40
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 47
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - 48
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - Cover3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2015 - Cover4
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