Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 21

Under the three different configurations, we retested the data

may be because of 1) the additional initialization procedures

throughput and also added another test on data transmission

for each new thread calling different native SDK functions

between the HIPs. The results are shown in Figure S2.

and 2) inter-HIP communications that are implemented as

The native SDKs (OHTK and Novint SDK) have a slight

interthread communications. CHAI3D somehow worked with

overhead increment when running homogeneous instances

case 2 thanks to its support of customized controllers, yet its

and have an obvious overhead increment when running

SPH-based architecture struggles to fulfill the data throughput

heterogeneous instances in separate processes. From the

required by the multichannel controller.

operating system point of view, creating multiple processes

The proposed framework has stable performance across

and sharing resources among them cost more than

SPH and MPH systems. Its update rate is slightly slower

multiple threads. It is not surprising to see that the native

than CHAI3D in case 1 with both homogeneous and

SDKs are optimized for the underlying SPH device drivers

heterogeneous device setups. In case 2, it performed

and are not quite practical with heterogeneous instances.

obviously faster than CHAI3D, where the three distinct HIPs

The native SDKS failed to run case 2 as they do not support

are transmitting data through a single pipeline and inter-HIP

customized multichannel controllers.

communications are done within a single device instance.

CHAI3D has a more stable performance between SPH and

A performance difference between CHAI3D and the

MPH systems due to its elegant object-oriented design and

proposed framework is also observed to be more significant

implementation. Yet the increased overhead is still notable. This

with the increment of the number of HIPs in the MHP system.

This abstraction does not impose hypothesis on the
component details and is aimed at quick exclusion of
irrelevant information.
2) Finger-level components, which focus on interfinger
communications, such as pinch and grasp. The
instances of these components represent finger-like
SPHs and are implemented as multithreaded communications. Configuration details of each HIP belonging
to a manual-level component are only visible within

New
HIP_1

Original
HIP

New
HIP_2

Customized
Controller

Integrated
Controller

A Customized Two-Point
Device Instance in the
Revised CHAI3D(13)

the scope of that component, where each HIP knows
exactly how other HIPs are defined in relation to the
configuration of sensory components, physical limitations, and constraints.
3) Sensory-level components, which consist of a kinesthetic
sensory component and a tactile sensory component
containing multiple tactile sensory nodes. The kinesthetic sensory component focuses on the representation of the HIP's position and orientation (input), as

New
HIP_1

Original
HIP

New
HIP_2

Integrated
Controller

Customized
Controller

Standardized Function Templates
in the Abstract MPH Model

A Standard Device
Instance in the
Original CHAI3D

A Generic Three-Point MPH
MPH Applications

MPH Applications

(a)

(b)

Figure 3. a (a) before and (b) after comparison scenario between two implementations of the same mPH. (a)
shows the pipeline implemented in [12], and (b) shows a clearer and logical implementation based on the
proposed framework.

Ja nu a r y 2016

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE

21



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - Cover1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - Cover2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 4
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 5
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 6
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 7
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 8
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 9
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 10
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 11
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 12
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 13
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 14
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 15
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 16
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 17
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 18
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 19
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 20
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 21
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 22
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 30
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 43
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - 44
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - Cover3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - January 2016 - Cover4
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