Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2015 - 25

communication network, a social network, a traffic conformulated as a search problem [39], and cybernetics is
trol network, and any network related to our daily lives
not an exception.
is important to make the network governable, safe, and
As discussed in the "Fundamental Properties of Selfsecure. For large-scale distributed systems (e.g., the InterGovernable Distributed Systems" section, for a system to
net), certain self-governability is also indispensable for the
be self-governable, it should at least be aware of its current
network to be more reliable or dependable. Of course, full
state or situation, the goal to reach, and the way to reach
self-governability of these systems may not be expected
the goal. The first awareness, i.e., state or situation awarefrom the point of view of human beings.
ness, is basically a pattern (state or situation) identificaTo construct a good ontology in a distributed system,
tion problem. The point here is to design a good pattern
it is necessary to combine various supervised learning
identifier. This is a typical search problem.
algorithms, unsupervised learning algorithms, EAs, and
Goal awareness is also a pattern identification probco-EAs together. For example, we may construct various
lem when the goal is known. If the goal is not known in
concepts through evolution or coevolution and fine-tune
advance, the goal awareness itself is a search problem. In
the concepts through supervised or unsupervised learnfact, most problems studied in the context of nonlinear
ing. In general, we think MAs should be studied further to
programming belong to this class. That is, we do not know
find the best combination of different algorithms for solvin advance the real goal for search, and what we can do
ing a given cybernetic problem.
is to define some temporary or short-term goal, search,
Note that this article is not a thorough survey on cyberand modify the goal dynamically. Usually, the goal should
netics. Instead, we would like to provide an advisory govbe modified to increase some evaluation function, which
ernance message and hope this message can help our
again might be defined through search.
community to define its goals more
Awareness of the way to reach
clearly. Although we should study
the goal is also a search problem.
different algorithms and methodThere can be many different ways
ologies in great detail, sometimes
to reach a given goal from a given
Awareness provides
we also need to look at the area on
state. To select the best way(s), we
a macro scale. We hope that this
may define a population of search
the raw material
article will stimulate discussion in
agents. These agents can work
from which animals
this community and increase the
together during search. To improve
appeal of our field.
search efficiency and efficacy,
develop qualia
through imitation or learning, the
or subjective
Acknowledgment
agents may share some appropriate
ideas about their
We would like to thank the anonyknowledge for search. In the literamous referees for their invaluable
ture, shared knowledge is known
experience.
comments and suggestions.
as memeplexes, and the algorithms
based on memeplex sharing are
About the Authors
called memetic algorithms (MAs)
Qiangfu Zhao (qf-zhao@u-aizu.ac.
[40], [41].
jp) earned his Ph.D. degree from Tohoku University of Japan
The construction of an ontology in a distributed
in 1988. He joined the Department of Electronic Engineering,
system is also a search problem. Supervised learning,
Beijing Institute of Technology, China, in 1988, first as a postunsupervised learning, evolution, and coevolution are
doctoral fellow and then as an associate professor. He was an
possible ways for solving a problem, but none of them
associate professor starting in 1993 at the Department of
can solve the problem alone. Again, MAs that integrate
Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan. He joined
various algorithms together can be useful to solve the
the University of Aizu, Japan, in 1995 as an associate profesproblem efficiently and effectively.
sor and became a tenured full professor in 1999. His research
interests include image processing, pattern recognition,
Conclusions
machine learning, and awareness computing. He is a Member
In this article, we have reconsidered the meaning of cyberof the IEEE.
netics and provided a taxonomy that can be useful for us
John Brine (brine@u-aizu.ac.jp) earned his Ph.D. degree
to understand various cybernetics more clearly. We have
from the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Universialso investigated some fundamental properties of governty of Toronto, Canada. Afterward, he was a postdoctoral felable or self-governable distributed systems. In particular,
low at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, and the Uniwe believe that ontology plays a key role for a distributed
versity of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. He was a senior lectursystem to become governable or even self-governable.
er in the Department of General and Applied Linguistics at
We think that automatic construction of a good ontology
the University of Waikato, New Zealand, until 2003. He
in a distributed system is an interesting topic for further
joined the University of Aizu, Japan, in 2004 and became a
study. In fact, constructing a good ontology for a mobile
Ap ri l 2015

IEEE Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Magazine

25



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2015

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2015 - Cover1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2015 - Cover2
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2015 - Cover3
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