Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - 10

EC
NN

CIS

FS

Figure 2. the big 3 of the IEEE CIS (as the neural

networks Council, 1993). Who are those hardy
balloonists? Frank rosenblatt and Lotfi zadeh? nick
Cercone and gordon mcCalla? John mcCarthy and
marvin minsky? bob marks and Stephen grossberg?
mickey mouse and Daffy Duck? you decide. (Clip art
image courtesy of microsoft.)

official party line of the IEEE Neural Networks Council in 1993 for the basic disciplines making up CI.
I wrote a second paper for the book of invited papers
associated with plenary lectures given at the 1994 WCCI [13].
There is not much in it beyond [3]. Russ Eberhart [17]
offered a very different view of CI in 1995 and expanded on
it in [18], where we find, "In summary, adaptation is arguably
the most appropriate term for what computationally
intelligent systems do. In fact, it is not too much of a stretch
to say that computational intelligence and adaptation are
synonymous." David Fogel critiqued my definition of CI in
[19], and he argued that any definition that included the
word intelligence necessitated discussion about and
inclusion of the notion of (evolutionary) adaptation.
I tried one more time, in 1998, to come to grips with
this term [20], but, by then, the term CI had acquired a life
of its own. My attempt to characterize it as I had six years
prior to this was summarily rejected by the discerning
public (aka the academic community), who just seemed to
want more from it that I could bring myself to offer.
The structural organization of the IEEE Neural
Networks Council depicted in Figure 2 was reaffirmed at
the 2 June 1996 ADCOM meeting of the Neural Networks
Council by its then president, Walter Karplus, who stated
that "CI substitutes intensive computation for insight
into how the system works. NNs, FSs and EC were all
shunned by classical system and control theorists. CI
umbrellas and unifies these and other revolutionary
methods." And in 2015? Visit the IEEE CIS website and
read the current scope of the CIS.
Scope of the IEEE CIS
The Field of Interest of the Society shall be the theory,
design, application, and development of biologically
10

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE A pri l 2016

and linguistically motivated computational paradigms emphasizing neural networks, connectionist
systems, genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming, fuzzy systems, and hybrid intelligent systems
in which these paradigms are contained. [30]
The topics identified in this statement are not that far
from the triumvirate of interests (the Big 3) seen in
Figure 2 that were first publicized as CI in 1993. Indeed, if
you compare the scope for 2015 to the scope of the Neural
Networks Council in 1991, the changes that seem to define
the basic topics defining CI are mostly cosmetic. But if we
retrieve the current list of publication activities of the
IEEE CIS from their website, we find a much broader set
of interests.
Publications of the IEEE CIS
We currently publish three premier Transactions, the
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, the IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, and the IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary
Computation.
Additionally, we co-sponsor the following: the IEEE
Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems, the IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational
Biology and Bioinformatics, the IEEE Transactions
on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, the
IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience, the IEEE
Transactions on Information Forensics and Security,
the IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, and
the IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid.
Through Councils we also support the following
transactions: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
and the IEEE Systems Journal.
CIS publishes the high quality Computational
Intelligence Magazine as a benefit of membership in
CIS and sponsors an IEEE Press/Wiley book series on
computational intelligence.
Judging from this list, the technical activities of the IEEE
CIS reach far beyond its official scope. Does this list of
publications affiliated with the CIS help us decide what the
term CI means? For example, is cognitive development a
subset of what people mean when they say computational
intelligence? Well, not for me, and probably not for many
others either. But it is interesting and provocative, for
example, to see a title such as IEEE Transactions in
Computational Intelligence in AI and Games under the
IEEE CIS banner. CI in AI? This title certainly supports the
assertion represented in Figure 1 that CI is a subset of AI
and brings us full circle to the relationship between CI and
AI. It would be impossible, in 2016, to provide you with an
accurate estimate of the numbers of laboratories, books,
papers, journals, institutes, degree programs, and so on
that now use CI as if its essential meaning was as well
understood as a term such as, for example, calculus. Well,
so what? Let's press on and see what's happened since
those early attempts to define CI.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016

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