Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - 27

levels for enterprises due to an exponential growth in
the data storage.
2) High velocity means that not only the speed of data collection but also the speed of analyzing and utilizing data are fast.
Big data is often available in real time and is batch oriented.
3) Much variety is also called multimodality of big data, which
means that the types of data can be very complex. For
example, consider big data in the clinical and health applications whose features include numerical data, symbolic data,
text, image, video, and time series, among others.
4) Low veracity corresponds to the changed uncertainty
and the large-scale missing values of big data. Sometimes, along with the growing size of datasets, the uncertainty of data itself often changes sharply, which
definitely makes the traditional processing tools
unavailable. Except for the changed uncertainty of data
itself, the uncertainty in data modeling and data processing are also changing very notably.
5) High value is to say that the value hidden in big data can
help users obtain "big" results. Mining the value of big
data will reveal insights that can lead enterprises to
obtain huge economic benefits.
This article will focus on the fourth V, the veracity, to
demonstrate the essential impact of modeling uncertainty
on learning performance improvement.

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Challenge of Big Data Analytics
The big data application chain generally includes four
phases: data generation, data management, data analytics,
and data application. Big data analytics, which is considered the most important phase in the whole chain, refers
to the process of discovering patterns from data. In this
phase, there are six main challenges (shown in Figure 1),
making big data analytics much more difficult and complicated than normal-sized data analytics.
◆ Complex data representation. How to uniformly represent various types of features is a great challenge for
big data with multimodality [3]. We need to process
the data in a uniform framework. The uniform/structured representation of data is the first step of data

Ap ri l 2016

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE

27


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - Cover1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - Cover2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - 1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - 2
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - Cover3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - Cover4
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