Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - 5

Intelligence Society; and 4) the role that buzzwords
play in the lives of all researchers. I estimate that this
article is roughly 40% facts, 10% anecdotes, 15% speculation, and 30% opinions. The other 5%? It's reserved
for you to fill in the blank-one option would be "bull."
[Parts of this article are excerpted from: J.C. Bezdek.,
(2015). "The History, Philosophy and Development of
Comput at iona l I ntel l igence ( How a si mple t u ne
became a Monster hit), in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), vol. 3, Computational Intellige n ce, Hisao Ish ibuch i, Ed., pp. 1-22. Ava ilable:
ieee-cis.sightworks.net/documents/Histor y/Bezdekeolss-CI-history.pdf.]
The Songwriters and the Stars
The previous paragraph advertises this as an article about
the origin of the term CI. Why is this interesting? Well, Ben
Goertzel, perhaps correctly, asserts that
Yeah, terminology is ultimately a pretty boring issue.
But in practice, it makes a lot more difference than it
"should"...So it's mildly interesting...to look at how
[a term] originates and spreads.
Since CI is often juxtaposed with the term AI, let's start
with a tiny bit of history for this older term. Apparently
John McCarthy coined the term AI to characterize the
topics of a 1956 conference at Dartmouth that he
organized with Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and
Claude Shannon. Crevier [1, p. 50] introduces a smidgeon
of doubt about th is, but McCa r thy stated quite
unequivocally that "I came up with the term" in a c|net
interview. He famously lamented that "as soon as it
works, no one calls it AI anymore."
The interplay between AI and CI is, in some sense,
just an offshoot of never-ending arguments about the
meaning of the root word intelligence, which takes a
front seat on this excursion into the jungle of technical
buzzwords. For starters, I will note that Legg and Hutter [2]
compiled a list of more than 70 definitions of the word
intelligence-it's fun to read and provides a nice
backdrop for this article. From McCarthy's starting point
for AI, there have been a number of spinoffs-not unlike
your favorite TV procedural (e.g., Law and Order,
456 episodes) or movie franchise (e.g., James Bond,
23 movies). Terminology in AI is similar. For example,
there is strong AI, attributed to Ray Kurzweil by Ben
Goertzel, and there is Goertzel's own term artificial
general intelligence (AGI), the story of which can be
found at the website http://wp.goertzel.org/who-coinedthe-term-agi/. Interestingly, and very pertinent to the
present tale, Goertzel writes:
In the last few years I've been asked increasingly
often if I invented the term "AGI"-the answer is
"not quite!" I am indeed the one responsible for
spreading the term around the world...and I did
sort of commission its creation! But I didn't actually
coin the phrase.

As this story unfolds, you will see that I am in exactly
the same situation with respect to the term CI-I didn't
invent it, but I spread it around. How? Well, (I think) I
wrote the first paper that defined-in a sort of rough-andtumble, nontechnical way-the term CI [3]. Subsequently,
I suggested attaching the term to several activities related
to the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society (CIS),
which began its life as the IEEE Neural Networks Council
(which was itself an offspring of sorts of the IEEE
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society). The most
important event in this regard was (and still is) the World
Congress on Computational Intelligence (WCCI), first held
in Orlando, Florida, in 1994.
Later you will see that the current name of the CIS
also had its roots in my suggestion. But, as I have been
careful to point out many times, the term CI itself was
around for at least seven years before I wrote that 1992
paper. What follows here is an abbreviated account of
my understanding of the history of the term, the
evolution of the IEEE CIS, its significant events, and the
current state of the art of the field. Along the way, there
will be much discussion about the interplay between
computational, artificial, and biological intelligence (BI).
Let me start this expedition into the past with a
seemingly unrelated but soon to be understood word
association game about popular music. Suppose I name
the song "Like a Rolling Stone," which the magazine
Rolling Stone lists as the greatest song of all time. (You
may not agree that this is the greatest song of all time, or
even of any time, because of its context, language, your
cultural history, your personal preferences and so on-
that's okay; it will still suffice to make my point.) Many of
you will know who wrote it, who performed it first, and
who made it a huge hit; Bob Dylan (1965) in all three
cases. But what about the song "[I'm Dreaming of a] White
Christmas"? Most of you know who made it popular-
Bing Crosby. Crosby spread it around by making the first,
and also most popular, recording of it in 1942. [According
to The Guinness Book of World Records, the holiday
perennial "White Christmas" [(1942]) by Crosby is still the
best-selling single of all time worldwide, with estimated
sales of over 50 million copies.] But you probably don't
know that Irving Berlin wrote the music and lyrics in
1940. It is often the case in music that the general public
attributes the creation of a well-known song to the artist
who made it most popular-the songwriter is often
obscured by the dazzling success of the star performer
who makes it a big hit. This happens in science and
engineering too-a lot.
Suppose I state a technical term, name a concept, or
repeat a physical law that is common in science or
engineering and ask you to associate a person's name with
it. For example, energy equals mass times the square of the
speed of light; in symbols, E = mc2. Almost everyone on
planet Earth (well, okay, almost everyone among the
members of the IEEE, anyway) can tell me that this
Ap ri l 2016

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE

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http://ieee-cis.sightworks.net/documents/History/Bezdek http://wp.goertzel.org/who-coined

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