Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - 9

Thu Apr 9 12: 33: 11 1992
Does this make you wonder if
To: rsn@ece.wvu.wvnet.edu,
Feynman was advocating the
It seems that any
rce@rti.rti.org, xm8@sdcc12.
same sort of distinction I was
UCSD.EDU, d43131a@nucc.
trying to make between AI and CI?
notion trifling with
nagoya-u.ac.jp, marks@b
Here's Elon Musk, Tesla founder
our beliefs about
lake.u.washington.edu,
and SpaceX CEO, warning of the
uncertainty and
From: jbezdek@trivia.
dangers of artificial intelligence
coginst.uwf.edu
in 2014:
intelligence will
Subject: NEW name of council
I think we should be very careful
always be controverStatus: R
about artificial intelligence. If I
I
suggest
the COMPUTATIONAL
had to guess at what our biggest
sial, doesn't it?
INTELLIGENCE COUNCIL, later
existential threat is, it's probably
to become the COMPUTATIONthat...We are summoning the
AL INTELLIGENCE SOCIETY.
demon. [29]
Two months later, the name of the IEEE World
Here's Stephen Hawking as Cassandra in 2014:
Congress on Intelligent Systems was changed to the
Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it would
IEEE WCCI. The first WCCI, held in Orlando in 1994,
take off on its own and redesign itself...The developcombined the two major conferences of the Neural
ment of full artificial intelligence could spell the end
Networks Council (NNs, fuzzy systems [FSs]), with a new
of the human race. [29]
one on evolutionary computation (EC).
The Musk and Hawking quotes are taken from an
These moves by the IEEE Neural Networks Council
article written by Ray Kurzweil, "Don't Fear Artificial
essentially turned the term CI from a simple tune into a
Intelligence" [29]. The author argues that Elon Musk
smash musical. (Readers interested in the early history of
and Stephen Hawking have misplaced fears. Kurzweil
the Neural Networks Council/CIS should visit the IEEE CIS
asserts that
history center, where they will find a number of pdf files
If AI becomes an existential threat, it won't be the
about events in the early years (1977-1996). There are also
first one. Humanity was introduced to existential risk
links to videotaped interviews with some of the important
when I was a child sitting under my desk during the
civil-defense drills of the 1950s. [29]
figures in the early days.) The role played by [3] in this
Kurzweil seems to be saying don't worry about AI, it's
regard is analogous to the role played by Dempster et al.
not that hot! Compare these opposite-sides-of-the-fence
[8] for the term EM. The main difference between the two
views to the same type of controversy about fuzziness
is that [3] concentrated on the semantics of the term CI,
versus probability that continues to smolder and
while Dempster et al. not only altered the semantics of
occasionally burn. It seems that any notion trifling with
their field (by introducing the term EM) but also provided
our beliefs about uncertainty and intelligence will always
technical details and analyses for their intended use of
be controversial, doesn't it?
the term. Channeling the words of Hartley in Meng and
Finally, let me point to a very recent book written by
Dyk [6], the term CI became "the theme of an overDavid Gelernter titled The Tides of Mind: Uncovering
powering symphony." The next section tracks what seems
the Spectrum of Consciousness. He is quoted by Von
to be the point of inflection for this simple tune.
Drehle in [34]:
As it now exists, the field of AI doesn't have anything
Computational Intelligence Goes Viral
that speaks to emotions and the physical body, so
After the IEEE WCCI in Orlando in 1994, many people
they just refuse to talk about it," ... but the question is
asked, what is CI? And many more simply jumped on
so obvious, a child can understand it. I can run an app
the buzzword bandwagon and started calling it "their
on any device, but can I run someone else's mind on
field," much the same way as a mathematician might
your brain? Obviously not.
say "differential geometry" in response to the quesAnd so, the argument about what AI can and cannot do,
tion, "what field are you in?" Then the skies opened,
what it is and is not, rages on. The CI community, on the
and definitions literally flooded the planet. A number
other hand, seems content to simply invent and test
of writers began to supply their own interpretations as
models and algorithms that provide tools for the larger
the heft of the term increased. Who else weighed in?
interests of the AI gang.
Here is a representative, but by no means exhaustive,
sample of comments about the definition of computational intelligence. Bob Marks summarized his view
The IEEE Lowers Its Drawbridge for CI
this way [16]: "Neural networks, genetic algorithms,
Here is the e-mail that I sent to Roy Nutter, Russ Eberhart,
fuzzy systems, evolutionary programming, and artifiPat Simpson, Bob Marks, and Toshio Fukuda on 9 April
cial life are the building blocks of CI." The Big 3 of
1992 that broached the term CI with the IEEE Neural NetNNs, FSs, and EC are shown in Figure 2. This was the
works Council for the first time:
Ap ri l 2016

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE

9


http://www.UCSD.EDU http://nagoya-u.ac.jp http://lake.u.washington.edu http://coginst.uwf.edu

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - Cover1
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - 1
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - April 2016 - Cover3
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