Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 15

data analysis are more important.
develop how a variety of sensors
In this sense, CA is a necessity for
can be integrated and how we can
A common belief was
making a happy society.
add complex feeling toward the
integrated input. By doing so, CA
that even intuition
Conclusions and Remarks
can accumulate its experience in
can be understood
In this article, we analyzed the
the environment.
and expressed by
biolog ica l m a n i fe st at ion s of
Social simulation can facilitate
awareness and the aspects of CA
social awareness. For example,
rules and facts.
in man-made devices. We defined
many politicians insist that we
awareness in two meanings, explicshould prepare for societies with
it awareness and tacit awareness.
low birth rates and longevity. SevExplicit awareness has been thoroughly studied in the
eral policies are made by politicians to prepare health-care
context of machine learning and awareness engineerfacilities for aged people. However, it is hard for them to
ing. In this article, we elaborated on some details of tacit
show what will happen when the population grows beyond
awareness. In particular, awareness inside the brain and
the capacity of the Earth. Helbing and Balietti listed the
proposed dynamical K models for emulating awareness
challenges that we are facing as follows [31]:
in changing environments were discussed. We also intro◆ financial and economic stability
duced a pure logic awareness model that can be useful to
◆ public health
interpret the nested hierarchy of awareness mechanisms.
◆ sustainable use of resources and environment
To show the importance of CA, the possible applications of
◆ collective social behavior and opinion dynamics
CA in human societies were discussed. We hope this article
◆ security and peace
can trigger more discussions and further developments in
◆ reliability of infrastructure
this emerging field.
◆ institutional design
◆ balance of power
Acknowledgments
◆ demographic change of the population structure
This work was supported in part through grants to Robert
◆ social, economic, and political participation, and inclusion.
Kozma by the U.S. National Science Foundation NSF/DMSTo address these challenges, we should integrate theories
13-11165 and to Tadahiko Murata by JSPS KAKENHI grant
and systems to address each challenge. CA should be
number 26380277. We would like to thank the anonymous
incorporated in such a system to find symptoms our socireferees for their invaluable comments and suggestions.
ety begins to show.
This is a joint work. The author list is in alphabetical
We can develop a social simulation system (SSS) that
order by surname. The contributions of all authors are basimulates every activity on the Earth. Figure 2 shows a
sically equal. The responsibilities of Chakraborty, Kozma,
hierarchical SSS for individuals, organizations, nations,
Zhao, and Murata were, respectively, the sections "Awareand the whole world (the universe). At the individual level,
ness: Sometimes an Enigma," "Neural Correlates and Dythe SSS helps a decision-making process for a human by
namical Models of Awareness," "A Three-Valued Logic
showing him symptoms in his surroundings and scenarios
Model of Aware Systems," and "Computational Awareness
following his decision. In upper levels, the SSS provides
in Human Societies." All parts of the article were crosssupport to larger organizations in the same way. We can
checked by all authors.
develop a part of the SSS that can improve the awareness
for every user (personal or group). Although each human
About the Authors
has limitations on his or her sense organs, the SSS using
Goutam Chakraborty (goutam@iwate-pu.ac.jp) earned
a global sensing system can employ observations beyond
his Ph.D. degree in 1993 from Tohoku University, Japan. He
the limitations of individual humans. To utilize an SSS
is currently a professor and the head of the Intelligent Inforefficiently and effectively, however, an SSS should also
matics Laboratory, Department of Software and Information
provide a higher level of awareness. For example, the SSS
Science, Iwate Prefectural University, Japan. His main recan recommend several scenarios to policy makers based
search interests are soft computing and heuristic algorithms
on the current status of many components (e.g., individuand their application to solving pattern recognition, predicals and organizations, such as corporations and governtion, scheduling, and optimization problems, including appliments) in the society. At the same time, the SSS can also
cations in wired and wireless networking problems. He is a
provide recommendations for each component to maxiSenior Member of the IEEE.
mize its own profit. Some scenarios for policy making can
Robert Kozma (rkozma@memphis.edu) earned his
be useful for the society but may not satisfy each comPh.D. degree from Delft University of Technology, The Nethponent. Therefore, a decision should be made politically.
erlands. He has been with the faculty of Tohoku University,
To help politicians to make suitable policies, a high-level
Japan (1992-1996); Otago University, New Zealand (1996-
awareness is needed. For this purpose, information visu1998); and the University of California at Berkeley (UCB),
alization is certainly useful, but concrete results based on
Ju ly 2015

IEEE Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Magazine

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover1
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover3
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