Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 31

a generalized and easy-to-follow
method that is well accepted.
RBC offers benefits
One important problem in RBC
is
to
specify and define the required
and challenges that
relationships
among roles [60], [66].
Definition 5 [61], [65], [72]
may
not
be
revealed
These
relationships
are a theoretic
Two different agents i 1 and i 2 are
with the traditional
foundation for a role-based system
in conflict on roles/groups (R/G) if
working on a role engine. This probi 1 and i 2 cannot be assigned to
methodologies
lem is still open and needs more
the same R/G. i 1 is called a conand systems.
investigation in formalizations and
flicting agent of i 2 and vice versa.
implementations. The implementaFor example, unresolved emotion of a role engine or the proof of
tional conflicts may prevent John
a minimum and sufficient logic will
and Matt from working together.
verify the specified role relationships. By minimum, we
An obvious danger exists if a bottle of poisonous chemimean that removing any logic component from such a syscals is placed into the same box with similarly packaged
tem leads to failure of the establishment of an application.
bottles of water.
By sufficient, we mean that such a system can support all
the activities of agents on roles and specify all the relationDefinition 6 [61], [65], [72]
ships among roles.
m
#
m
A conflicting agent matrix is defined as an
matrix
Role-based interaction has been presented as an
A c : A c 6i 1, i 2@ ! " 0, 1 ,, where A c 6i 1, i 2@ = 1 expresses that
innovative way to facilitate HCI [44], [76]. Further
agent i 1 is in conflict with agent i 2, while A c 6i 1, i 2@ = 0
efforts are required in implementation and simulation.
means not.
More empirical studies are also required to verify the
Note that from the definitions, the conflicting agent
claimed benefits.
matrix is a symmetric one along the diagonal from
c
c
c
Role-based software engineering [87] and programming
0
,
0
to
m
1
,
m
1
,
A
i
,
i
=
A
i
,
i
/
A
i
,
i
=
0
6 @ 6
@
6 1 2@
6 2 1@
6 @
[27],
[33], [41]-[44], [83] are innovative and promising method(i 1 ! i 2, i, i 1, i 2 = 0, 1, f, m - 1) .
ologies that have much potential to improve the productivity
of software development teams and the quality of a software
Definition 7 [61], [65], [72]
product. More work in these areas is required. Although
GRACA on R/G finds a workable role assignment matrix T
aspect-oriented programming (AOP) [26] and subject-orifrom Q and L to max v subject to (1)-(3) and on roles
ented programming (SOP) [15] claim to provide similar
approaches to software engineering and programming, we
A c 6i 1, i 2@ # ^T6i 1, j@ + T 6i 2, j@h # 1
believe that the reason AOP and SOP are not widely accept^ 0 # i 1, i 2 1 m, i 1 ! i 2, 0 # j 1 n h
(4)
ed after two decades is the lack of formal specifications for
roles/role-players and the design of a role engine to support
or on groups
high-level role-based design and agent development.
c
Role-based chatting is supported by a web-based tool
A 6i 1, i 2@ # ^T 6i 1, j 1@ + T 6i 2, j 2@h # 1
[70].
It provides a tradeoff between anonymity and trust.
^0 # i 1, i 2 1 m, i 1 ! i 2, 0 # j 1 j 2 1 n h .
(5)
It helps shy people present their ideas and significantly
improves the satisfaction of those participating in collaboraThe GRACA (R/G) problems were formalized and
tion. Named collaboration allows aggressive contributors
solved in [61], [65], and [72]. The solutions are satisfacto dominate the process, thus potentially excluding useful
tory because they are able to deal with such problems for a
ideas presented by shy people. More applications and empirigroup up to 200 agents [72]. It is still valuable to investigate
cal studies are required to present and verify the promises.
new solutions that can solve a larger problem efficiently.
Adaptive collaboration systems (ACSs) [1], [30], [39],
[78], [79] are another important branch that needs to be
Problems Discovered But Not
investigated. From our previous work, RBC and E-CARGO
Yet Fully Solved
are verified as a solid foundation for adaptive systems to
The collective role assignment problem is a complex one
be established. The RBC process and the dynamic paramthat has been formalized in [63]. However, the initial solueters in the E-CARGO model promise to contribute more
tion is of limited use due to such complexity.
in the development of ACSs.
Agent evaluation is an important step in RBC, as shown
in Figure 1. It creates the qualification matrix Q as the founHow to Discover Challenges
dation to conduct role assignment. Even though some work
by RBC and E-CARGO
[71], [74] related to agent evaluation has been done, there are
Because RBC is a well-specified methodology and the
still many challenges unsolved. The current situation is that
E-CARGO model is well defined, it is not difficult to use
problems are solved case by case, and we still need to obtain
produced a copyrighted software
product: the Visualized Role-Transfer Tool [75].

Ju ly 2015

IEEE Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Magazine

31



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 4
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 5
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 6
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 7
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 8
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 9
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 10
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 11
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 12
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 13
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 14
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 15
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 16
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 17
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 18
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 19
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 20
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 21
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 22
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 23
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 24
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 25
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 26
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 27
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 28
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 29
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 30
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 31
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 32
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 33
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 34
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 35
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 36
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 37
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 38
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 39
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 40
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 41
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 42
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 43
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 44
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 45
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 46
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 47
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 48
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 49
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 50
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 51
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 52
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 53
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 54
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 55
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 56
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 57
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 58
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 59
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 60
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 61
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 62
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 63
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 64
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 65
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 66
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 67
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 68
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 69
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 70
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 71
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 72
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0717
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0117
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0716
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0116
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0715
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0115
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com