Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 36

When Computer
Science Emerged
and Fuzzy Sets
Appeared
The Contributions of Lotfi A. Zadeh and Other Pioneers
by Rudolf Seising

I

n the 1960s, the discipline of computer science
(CS) emerged from electrical engineering (EE) and
research fields in mathematics and mathematical logic. Around the same time, fuzzy sets (FSs)
appeared as a new mathematical theory, founded by
the electrical engineer Lotfi Aliasker Zadeh. Some unpublished documents of Zadeh's show that the emergence of
CS and the theory of FSs were interlinked. Zadeh's task as
chair of the EE Department at the University of California,
Berkeley (UCB); his activities in the education of mathematics, EE, system theory, information theory (IT), and CSs;

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MSMC.2015.2483035
Date of publication: 4 March 2016

36

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE July 2015

and his creation of the theory of FSs generated his view and
choice of contents for the new discipline of CS as an FS.
Introduction
Science is the general analysis of phenomena in nature,
and that is what in ancient times was called natural philosophy. In the Middle Ages, scholars preserved the ancient
order of the subjects as the quadrivium (music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy) and, after the ninth century, the trivium of arts of humanities (grammar, logic,
and rhetoric). When universities emerged in the 11th centur y, these seven a r tes
liberales formed the facultas artium, joining the

2333-942X/15©2015IEEE



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 4
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 5
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 6
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 7
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 8
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 9
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 10
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 11
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 12
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 13
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 14
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 15
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 16
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 17
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 18
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 19
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 20
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 21
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 22
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 23
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 24
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 25
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 26
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 27
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 28
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 29
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 30
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 31
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 32
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 33
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 34
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 35
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 36
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 37
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 38
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 39
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 40
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 41
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 42
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 43
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 44
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 45
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 46
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 47
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 48
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 49
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 50
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 51
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 52
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 53
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 54
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 55
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 56
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 57
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 58
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 59
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 60
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 61
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 62
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 63
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 64
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 65
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 66
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 67
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 68
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 69
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 70
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 71
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 72
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0717
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0117
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0716
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0116
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0715
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0115
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com