Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 43

conceptually designed by Howard Aiken (1900-1973), and, from
"Today, EE is
1944 to 1949, the mathematician
no longer an
Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992)
joined the project. For details on
aggregation of a
who invented the first computer,
small number of
see [26].
The technological development
subject areas sharing
of digital computers was pushed
a large common
for wa rd w it h t he Elect ron ic
body of concepts
Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) and the Electronic
and techniques."
Discrete Variable Computer, both
When Computers
designed by John Presper EckTook Over
ert (1919-1995) and John William
Comput er s a nd com mu n ic a Mauchly (1907-1980). Shortly after the end of World War
tion theory were the most famous technical products of
II, the general public became aware of the development
research undertaken during World War II-along with the
of computer and communication technology that had
atomic bomb. The era of computers was already started by
occurred during the war. The headlines said that these
Bush's analog differential analyzer at MIT.
newly created machines were "mechanical" (The BaltiThe first electromechanical computer was the Z3
more Sun) or "electronical" (New York Herald Tribune)
designed in 1941 by Konrad Zuse (1919-1995) in Beror "mathematical brains" (The Philadelphia Inquirer),
lin, Germany. The first electronic computer was the
but they were also named "wonder brains" (The PhilaAtanasoff-Berry computer (ABC) created by John V.
delphia Inquirer), "magic brains" (New York World TeleAtanasoff (1903-1995) and Clifford E. Berry (1918-1963).
gram), and "super brains" (Newark Star Ledger). They
However, the ABC was not a general-purpose computer.
explained that these apparatuses weighed 30 tons (The
Next, in England, were the digital and electronic Colossus
Evening Bulletin, Providence), were 1,000 times faster
computers (which were also not general-purpose computthan any that had been previously built (Chicago Sun),
ers) designed by Tommy Flowers (1905-1998) with the
and could compute a 100-year problem in 2 h (New York
help of Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954). These were
Herald Tribune) [18, p. 120].
used to decrypt the German Enigma codes during World
The first book that continued this trend was Giant
War II in 1943. In 1944, we had the first large-scale electroBrains, or Machines That Think. It was published by the
mechanical and digital computer, the Automatic Sequence
mathematician Edmund C. Berkeley (1923-1988) in 1949.
Controlled Calculator, later renamed Harvard Mark I.
In this book, Berkeley gave a description of the functionSubsequent versions were, in 1947, the Harvard Mark II;
ality of early computing machines. As the book's blurb
in 1949, the mostly electronic Harvard Mark III; and, in
summarized, "an authority tells the story of 'mechanical
1952, the all-electronic Harvard Mark IV. The series was
brains'-how they 'think,' what they do, and what they can
mean in your future" [5].
As early as 1950, in his Mind article "Computing
Machinery
and Intelligence," Turing had asked whether
N1
N = N1 + N2
machines can think [33]. Turing began, "I propose to
+
consider the question, 'Can machines think?'" HowN2
ever, since "thinking" is difficult to define, he chose
to "replace the question by another, which is closely
(a)
related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous
N = N2 N1
words" [33, p. 433]. Turing thus considered the question
N1
N2
"Are there imaginable digital computers which would
(b)
do well in the imitation game?" [33, p. 442], which-as
he believed-was one that could actually be answered.
N1
To this end, he proposed the imitation game, which was
N = N1 N2
later named the Turing test.
The Turing test highlighted a philosophical interest in
N2
the problem of deciding whether a computer or a program
(c)
could think like a human. In those days, Zadeh was a young
electrical engineer with a deep interest in the newly emergFigure 5. The filter combinations: Zadeh's functional
ing computing machines. He wrote a paper, "Thinking
symbolism.
further, but this course of action
led nowhere. The other way presented itself in 1964, when Zadeh
discovered how he could describe
real systems as they appeared to
people. He later explained, "I've
always sort of gravitated toward
something that would be closer
to the real world" [28]. What was
"closer to the real world" was the
theory of FSs.

Ju ly 2015

IEEE Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Magazine

43



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover2
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - Cover3
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