Systems, Man & Cybernetics - July 2015 - 52

rate fields were always undertaken
statement, "to convey even a rough
according to the observer and a
idea of the boundaries of CS and
The historical aspects
specific way of looking. To an outits relation to mathematics, EE,
side observer, they are fluid, they
and other neighboring fields,"
described in this
are not sharp, and they are fuzzy.
he introduced his idea of FSs to
article are only hints
If we look at the emergence and
employ a new approach:
fanning-out of the diverse interSpecifically, let us regard CS as a
of a complete history
disciplinary approaches in science
name for an FS of subjects and
of the connections
and technology in the 20th and
attempt to concretize its mean21st centuries-such as cybernetbetween the
ing by associating with various
ics, general system theory, and resubjects their respective degrees
disciplines of
search in artificial intelligence, as
of containment (ranging from
FSs, EE, and CS.
well as recent research and teachzero to one) in the FS of CS. For
ing projects that cut across and
example, a subject such as "prooverlap the old, established discigramming languages" which
plines, e.g., computational intelplays a central role in CS will
ligence, natural computing, artificial life, bioinformatics,
have a degree of containment equal to unity. On the
biophilosophy, and digital humanities-it is becoming inother hand, a peripheral subject such as "mathematicreasingly clear that with this crossing-over of the old borcal logic" will have a degree of containment of, say,
ders, hybrid forms of older disciplines are now beginning
0.6. [52, p. 913]
to emerge. They are not only newly custom-built fields in
Under the heading "Containment Table for Computer
the areas of science and technology; their own borders and
Science" (Figure 16), he arranged the most relevant "sublimits have also become flexible according to how, where,
jects in question" and their corresponding "degrees of conand when and the usefulness of their experts. I suggest
tainment in CS." Zadeh explained:
that, to depict these emerging flexible structures within
Clearly, such numerical values of degrees of containscientific-technical systems, fuzzy relations, together with
ment represent merely this writer's subjective assessinvigorating mathematical structures, could be used as a
ment, expressed in quantitative terms, of the current
bona fide tool to attempt to formalize and represent these
consensus regarding the degrees of inclusion of varirelationships in a much more advantageous manner.
ous subjects in CS. [52, p. 913]
He also emphasized that
Acknowledgment
a high degree of containment of a particular subject
I would like to thank L.A. Zadeh for his very kind support
in CS does not imply that it cannot have a similar high
during the last 15 years of historical research.
or even higher grade of containment in some other
field. For example, "automata theory" has the degree
About the Author
of containment of 0.8 in CS; it also has the same, or
Rudolf Seising (rudolf.seising@softcomputing.es) is with
nearly the same, degree of containment in system thethe Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany, and the
ory. Also, the subjects listed in the table may have
European Center for Soft Computing, Mieres, Spain.
substantial overlaps with one another. This is true,
e.g., of "automata theory" and "finite state systems."
References
[52, p. 914]
[1] H. D. Arnold, "An introduction to research in the communication field," in Modern

Outlook
The historical aspects described in this article are only
hints of a complete history of the connections between the
disciplines of FSs, EE, and CS. It is thought-provoking to
generalize about some of these assumptions in other connective areas of science, e.g., recent branches of artificial
intelligence, computational intelligence, and natural computing. However, it may also be interesting to analyze the
historical developments in the actual dynamics of scientific disciplines in general.
The discovery of the differences or classifications in the
history of knowledge of science and humanities, natural
and social sciences, pure and applied sciences, and science
and technology was invariably characterized both socially
and culturally. The limits that were drawn up in these sepa52

IEEE Systems, Man, & Cybernetics Magazine July 2015 	

Communication. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1932, pp. 25-48.
[2] S. Assilian, "Artificial intelligence in the control of real dynamic systems," Ph.D.
dissertation, Dept. Electron. Eng., Univ. London, U.K., Aug. 1974.
[3] S. D. Conte, J. W. Hamblen, W. B. Kehl, S. O. Navarro, W. C. Rheinboldt, D. M.
Young Jr., and W. F. Atchinson, "An undergraduate program in computer science-
Preliminary recommendations," Commun. ACM, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 543-552, Sept. 1965.
[4] W. F. Atchison, S. D. Conte, J. W. Hamblen, T. E. Hull, T. A. Keenan, W. B. Kehl, E.
J. McCluskey, S. O. Navarro, W. C. Rheinboldt, E. J. Schweppe, W. Viavant, and D. M.
Young Jr., "Recommendation for academic programs in computer science," Commun.
ACM, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 151-197, Mar. 1968.
[5] E. C. Berkeley, Giant Brains or Machines That Think. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 1949.
[6] V. Bush, "The differential analyzer," J. Franklin Inst., vol. 212, no. 4, pp. 447-448,
Oct. 1931.
[7] W. Cauer, "Die siebschaltungen der fernmeldetechnik," Zeitschrift für angewandte
Mathematik und Mechanik, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 425-433, 1930.



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