Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 14

be achieved using noninvasively recorded brain signals.
By addressing the various challenges in this area, practical and real-world applications of BCI can be implemented. Further progress in this area of BCI research can
thus lead to innovations in BCI technology.

[7] J. R. Wolpaw, "Brain-computer interface research comes of age: Traditional assumptions meet emerging realities," J. Motor Behav., vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 351-353, 2010.
[8] D. J. McFarland and J. R. Wolpaw, "BCI for communication and control," Commun. ACM, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 60-66, 2011.
[9] N. Birbaumer, "Breaking the silence: BCI for communication and motor control,"
Psychophysiology, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 517-532, 2006.

About the Authors
Neethu Robinson (neethur@goa.bits-pilani.ac.in) earned
her B.Tech. (First Honors) degree in electronics and communication engineering from the University of Kerala,
India, in 2010 and her Ph.D. degree in computer engineering from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, in
2015. From January to March 2012, she worked as a visiting
researcher with the research team at the Institute of Medical Psychology and Clinical Neurobiology, University of Tubingen Germany. Since June 2015, she has been an assistant
professor at Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering,
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, K.K. Birla
Goa Campus, India.
A.P. Vinod (asvinod@ntu.edu.sg) earned his B.Tech.
degree in instrumentation and control engineering from the
University of Calicut, India, in 1993 and his M.E. (by
research) and Ph.D. degrees from the School of Computer
Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, in 2000 and 2004, respectively. He spent the first
five years of his career as an automation engineer in industry. From 2000 to 2002, he was a lecturer at Singapore Polytechnic. He joined NTU as a lecturer in the School of Computer Engineering in 2002, where he is currently a tenured
associate professor. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE,
associate editor of IEEE Transactions on HumanMachine Systems and Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing Journal, and technical committee cochair of the
Brain-Machine Interface Systems of the IEEE Systems,
Man, and Cybernetics Society.

[10] J. R. Wolpaw, D. J. McFarland, G. W. Neat, and C. A. Forneris, "An EEG-based
brain-computer interface for cursor control," EEG Clin. Neurophysiol., vol. 78,
no. 3, pp. 252-259, 1991.
[11] G. Pfurtscheller, C. Brunner, A. Schlögl, and F. L. Da Silva, "Mu rhythm (de)
synchronization and EEG single-trial classification of different motor imagery tasks,"
Neuroimage, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 153-159, 2006.
[12] P. Shenoy, M. Krauledat, B. Blankertz, R. P. Rao, and K. R. Müller, "Towards adaptive classification for BCI," J. Neural Eng., vol. 3, no. 1, p. R13-23, 2006.
[13] R. Leeb, D. Friedman, G. R. Müller-Putz, R. Scherer, M. Slater, and G.
Pfurtscheller, "Self-paced (asynchronous) BCI control of a wheelchair in virtual
environments: A case study with a tetraplegic," Computat. Intell. Neurosci., vol.
2007, p. 79642, 2007.
[14] G. Schalk, D. J. McFarland, T. Hinterberger, N. Birbaumer, and J. R. Wolpaw,
"BCI2000: A general-purpose brain-computer interface (BCI) system," IEEE Trans.
Biomed. Eng., vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1034-1043, June 2004.
[15] J. Yao, A. Chen, C. Carmona, and J. P. Dewald, "Cortical overlap of joint representations contributes to the loss of independent joint control following stroke," Neuroimage, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 490-499, 2009.
[16] J. P. Dewald, V. Sheshadri, M. L. Dawson, and R. F. Beer, "Upper-limb discoordination in hemiparetic stroke: Implications for neurorehabilitation," Topics Stroke
Rehab., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-12, 2001.
[17] A. P. Georgopoulos, J. F. Kalaska, R. Caminiti, and J. T. Massey, "On the relations
between the direction of two-dimensional arm movements and cell discharge in primate motor cortex," J. Neurosci., vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 1527-1537, 1982.
[18] J. M. Carmena, M. A. Lebedev, R. E. Crist, J. E. O'Doherty, D. M. Santucci, and D.
F. Dimitrov, "Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping
by primates," PLoS Biol., vol. 1, no. 2, p. E42, 2003.
[19] C. Mehring, J. Rickert, E. Vaadia, S. C. de Oliveira, A. Aertsen, and S. Rotter,
"Inference of hand movements from local field potentials in monkey motor cortex,"
Nature Neurosci., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1253-1254, 2003.
[20] T. Pistohl, T. Ball, A. Schulze-Bonhage, A. Aertsen, and C. Mehring, "Prediction of

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14

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE October 2016



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