Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 19

I maintained the joy of sharing
knowledge. I taught short courses at
the University of California at Los Angeles Extension, gave tutorials at conferences, lectured at summer schools,
and gave invited talks. I had several
appointments as visiting professor or
adjunct professor (at the University
of Edinburgh, U.K.; University of Essex, U.K.; University of Queensland,
Australia). I had the privilege of advising many young people (in both research and career choices) and more
than 200 interns and visitors, many
of whom are now professors. I helped
numerous young people to find jobs,
get promotions, and even obtain immigration papers.
SMC Magazine: Tell us more about
your research interests and contributions.
Stoica: Most of my interests fit into
three clusters: machine intelligence,
robotics, and human-oriented systems.
My main contributions in machine intelligence are hardware oriented. I was
very interested in on-chip adaptation
and learning. I designed several generations of self-reconfigurable analog
devices that adapt to survive extreme
temperatures (low or high) and space
environment radiation levels (total
ionizing dose) through evolutionary
techniques. Today, they are referred
to as evolvable hardware. I initiated
and led the efforts in this area in the
United States during 1996-2007.
In 1999, a US$2 million DARPAfunded project enabled my team to develop and demonstrate the world's first
on-chip evolution of analog circuits,
also known as automated synthesis
of circuit topologies on reconfigurable
chips. With NASA funding, we demonstrated the principle of evolution-guided recovery of analog functions when
exposed to extreme temperatures
(from -196 °C to 300 °C) and high radiation (300 krad total ionizing dose).
Our third-generation self-reconfigurable analog array IC was the largest
and most complex field-programmable analog array at the time.
I also demonstrated, with DARPA
funding, the functionality of polymor-

Stoica (left) receives the Lew allen award, the highest JPL award for
excellence in research, from JPL Director Dr. Ed Stone.

phic circuits fabricated as custom ICs,
thus establishing a new research area
dubbed polymorphic electronics. Polymorphic circuits have superimposed
functionality, featuring stealth functions that are key enablers of highest
security, antitamper applications.
As I mentioned previously, one of
my first research contributions was
my Ph.D. dissertation in the area of
robot learning by imitating humans.
I have been convinced, from the very
beginning of my career, that being
taught by humans is the key to transferring skills to robots and to developing intelligence in robots, and that the
humanoid shape is the optimal robot
shape for that purpose.
Hence, I became one of the earliest advocates in the United States
for the development of humanoids
and the use of humanoids in space
exploration. In 2002, I also tried
to persuade DARPA to consider
humanoids, but the concept was
quite ahead of its time. A decade
later, in 2012, DARPA initiated the
DARPA Robotic Challenge with huO c tob e r 2016

Stoica shows three generations
of field-programmable analog
arrays.

manoid platforms. I did, however,
gain some funding from DARPA and
from JPL for proof-of-concept demonstrations with a small humanoid
called a humanoid for open architecture platform (HOAP), developed by

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE

19



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - Cover1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - Cover2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 4
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 5
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 6
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 7
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 8
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 9
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 10
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 11
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 12
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 13
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 14
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 15
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 16
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 17
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 18
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 19
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 20
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 21
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 22
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 23
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 24
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 25
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 26
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 27
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 28
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 29
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 30
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 31
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 32
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - Cover3
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